K&P PETERSON SYSTEM #307 - REPUBLIC OF IRELAND-BRIAR ESTATE PIPE

Category Collectibles Tobacciana Pipes Estate

Current price $41.00

Listing type Chinese

Location Saint Clair, Michigan 480** US

Quantity sold 1

Quantity available 1

Bids 6

Seller diesel_73 (1620)

Seller rating 100% positive feedback

Country/Region Of Manufacture Ireland

Body Shape Bent Billiard

Brand Peterson

See it on eBay →

PETERSON SYSTEM 1/2 BENT BILLIARD. THE PIPE IS SOLID BUT DOES HAVE SOME NICKS, THE FRONT OF THE RIM HAS SOME SLIGHT WEAR, PROBABLY FROM A FEW TAPS, THE STEMS IN GOOD SHAPE.
NOMENCLATURE: PETERSON SYSTEM//MADE IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND 307
NOMENCLATURE CONDITION: GOOD (EXCEPT FOR UNDER PETERSON SYSTEM, THAT PART IS RUBBED OUT)
LENGTH: 6&1/2IN
BOWL HEIGHT: 2IN
INNER BOWL DEPTH: 1&1/4IN
TOBACCO CHAMBER OUTER DIAMETER: 1&1/4IN
TOBACCO CHAMBER INNER DIAMETER: 3/4IN
LENGTH OF STEM: 4&1/2IN
STEM TYPE: VULCANITE/MILITARY STYLE/BENT/P-LIP
MENTIONABLES:
IF YOU NEED MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE ASK!
PIPE CASE NOT INCLUDED

CHRISTIAN PIPE SMOKERS BLOG/PORTAL
CHRISTIANPIPESMOKERS.NET

PETERSON
Kapp & Peterson Factory, courtesy Kapp & Peterson
Charring Cross, courtesy Kapp & Peterson
PRESS RELEASE FROM KAPP & PETERSON ANNOUNCING THEIR NEW WEBSITE!: As stewards of the oldest continuously operating briar pipe factory in the world, we at Peterson have a certain tradition to uphold. That tradition isn’t bound to the factory floor, however; it urges us to adapt and to innovate in the spirit with which Charles Peterson launched his first System pipes. That spirit of innovation led us to develop a new website, which we today unveil: www.peterson.ie.
A complete catalogue and light e-commerce website, www.peterson.ie has been carefully designed to educate our dedicated customers and retailers alike through detailed taxonomy and historically accurate information. Moreover, it represents our complete current understanding of the Peterson brand; it is the first and only place on the internet to definitively catalogue every pipe and accessory we produce, even when currently unavailable. And our customers can still place orders for any product marked available, to be fulfilled by the shipping and customer service teams at our parent company, Laudisi Ireland.
It’s our hope that this newly designed and revamped platform will make it easier to connect with us, to follow along on our journey, and to gain a deeper understanding of our most treasured products. While we continue to expand our modern business practices, we do so to serve our customers with more transparency and enhanced distribution and availability, all while remaining dedicated to the heritage, tradition, and reputation we've garnered over our 150+ years in the industry.
We have a saying here in Ireland: Céad Míle Fáilte. We greet you with one hundred thousand welcomes, wherever you come from, whosoever you be. Welcome to www.peterson.ie. We hope you enjoy.
A special thanks to Mark Irwin and Gary Malmberg for their excellent resource, The Peterson Pipe: The Story of Kapp & Peterson. Without the tremendous effort Mark and Gary put into this work, the quality, consistency, and user experience of www.peterson.ie would not have been the same.
- The Kapp & Peterson Team
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PETERSON PIPE
CHARLES CHRISTOPHER PETERSON: Born 4th March 1852 - Riga, Latvia. Died 11th September 1919- Hamburg, Germany.
1865 - 1889 THE PRE PATENT PERIOD
The Kapp brothers, George and Frederick originally emigrated to Great Britain from Nuremburg in Bavaria .They first appear in the London trade directories in 1866,when they are listed as Meerschaum pipe makers of 98 Dean Street,Soho ,London. They then parted company in 1869 and established their own pipe shops independently of each other.
At some time around 1874 Fredrick moved to Dublin.while brother George remained in London until his death 5 years later. Fredrick and his young family settled in the Rathmines district of Dublin. In July of the same year he opened a new shop in 53 Grafton Street selling Briar and Meerschaum pipes.
* Early, circa 1883 Kapp Bros. cased Meerschaum, courtesy Racine & Laramie Tobacconist
* * Around 1876 Charles Peterson, a young, newly arrived, Latvian immigrant was hired by Fredrick as a pipe craftsman,primarily to make custom ordered briar pipes. However Fredrick had not long to live and died in 1881. Exactly one year later Fredrick's widow also died.The business was then inherited by their 10 and 12 year old sons and was renamed Kapp Brothers after executors were appointed.Charles Peterson by then was the lead craftsman and managed the business on behalf of Fredrick and his wife's executors until the boys came of age. When the Kapp brothers did eventually come of age, Alfred and Charles Peterson bought out Christian's shareholding and renamed the business Kapp & Peterson.
Christian chose to become a Doctor and moved to England .
1890 - 1914 THE PATENT PERIOD
1900 Bee Patent Advertisement
Alfred & Charles at shop frontage
Charles Peterson applied for a patent for an improved tobacco pipe on the 8th of August 1890.
He was awarded patent number 12393 on the 16th of June 1891 for Great Britain and Ireland.This came to be known as the famous 'System Pipe' patent.
The French patent,No. 210944 was issued to them on January 1891.
The USA issued patent No. 519,135 on May 1st 1894.
In later years they went on to be successful in being awarded additional patents associated with their innovative pipes and pipe stems,including the famous P-lip patent in 1898.
1895 Kapp and Peterson moved to bigger premises at 111 Grafton Street Dublin and also opened a new depot in Broad Street London.
1900 K & P exhibited with great success at the Paris International exhibition winning several gold medals and accolades for the quality of their pipes.
Fredrick Henry Kapp, son of Alfred and known as Harry, joined his father's business in 1914 at the outbreak of the first World War.
1915 - 1949 THE PRE REPUBLIC PERIOD
"Kelly's Fort" incident newspaper article
Alfred H. Kapp
This was a turbulent period for the company with
the outbreak of World war 1 and the start of the Easter uprising in 1916. The K&P shop was extensively damaged during the military action at this time ( see attached newspaper report). Following quote by Kapp & Peterson.-
_"Kelly's, the well known Dublin landmark at the corner of Sackville Street and Bachelor's Walk, one of the most shot at and fully punctured premises in Dublin, was in our possession practically before the smoke ceased over the ashes of our fine shop under the Metropole Hotel. This was one of the most sensational business captures arising out of the Rebellion."_
Around 1916, Peterson began stamping their pipes "Made in Ireland" in what is referred to as a block format.
Charles Peterson died shortly after retiring and moving to Hamburg in Germany in 1919 where he is buried.
The original 1890 'system' pipe patent expired at around this time. The Irish free state came into being in December 1922. The Free State Era was from 1922 through to 1937.
Peterson followed with a stamp of "Irish Free State" in either one or two lines, either parallel or perpendicular to the shanks axis and extremely close to the stem.
Ireland was a republic in all but name. Eventually the Irish people voted for a new constitution in 1937 and Ireland then formally became Eire (Ireland in Irish).
The Made in Eire era stamps were from 1938 through till 1941. Peterson now stamped their pipes with "Made in Eire" in a circle format with "Made" and "Eire" in a circle with the "in" located in the centre of the circle. This was used during the years of 1938 - 41. Later they stamped their pipes with "Made in Ireland" in a circle format 1945-1947 and still later with "Made in Ireland" in a block format 1947-1949. The "Made in Ireland" block format came in either one line or two lines.
The Republic of Ireland was formed on 17 April 1949.
1950 - 1989 THE REPUBLIC ERA
1950's street scene outside the Kapp & Peterson shop
The sword of light hallmarks
From 1950 to the present time, the stamp for this era is
"Made in the Republic of Ireland" in a block format generally in three lines but two lines have been used with or without Republic being abbreviated.
During the 1950's and 60's the Kapp & Peterson company was still in the ownership of the Kapp family. However 1964 saw the retiral of the company Managing Director Frederick Henry(Harry) Kapp.
In the 1960's Peterson hallmarked all gold mounted pipes but apparently they used their own marks on silver. This practice stopped at the end of that decade when they started to have all silver bands hallmarked.
In 1966 a "Jubilee " fourth hallmark was introduced, only for that year, to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Easter Rising of 1916. Designed as a hand holding a flaming sword in Irish "an cláiomh solais" or "sword of light" the mark bears the date 1916 to the right above and 1966 to the left below. An Claidheamh Soluis (Old Irish spelling), this was hallmarked with the letter Y. This very unusual and special date mark has in recent years become very scarce, mainly because it was only used for that year. Pipes that were marked thus, are much sought after by Peterson pipe collectors.
1969/70 – The 'Made in England' stamp was discontinued with the closing down of the London based factory. Although Peterson has always prided itself in being an Irish made pipe, Peterson had also maintained a pipe factory in London since 1899.
English made Peterson pipes actually spanned the period between the pre Republic and Republic eras.
In 1899, Peterson opened the first in a series of several successive shops in London, England, that lasted until the late 1960's/70s.
1899 – 53, New Broad St. E.C.
1910 – 7, Hills Pl., Oxford St. W.
1915 – 21, Mortimer St. W.
Finally moving to 74/77 White Lion Street until 1970.
So the English Era, for a simplified date, will be from 1899 through to around 1970. The stamps Peterson used in London are:
* Made in England block format
* Made in England circle format
* Made in London
* Made in London England
* Simply, London England
* London Made over England block format
* Great Britain
Harry Kapp
Shannon Airport Duty Free shop
Harry Kapp died on 20th February 1972. Shortly after, 1973/4 Kapp & Peterson merged with Tennant and Ruttle and the name of the company changed to Peterson Tennant. It was subsequently taken over by James Crean Ltd,but later the manufacturing concern was
separated from the rest of the company and began trading once more under it's historical name of Kapp and Peterson.
During the 1970’s Peterson had a large display of pipes in the Shannon Airport Duty Free Shop for passengers. These were on display in a floor cabinet measuring approximately 6 ‘x 3’. Shannon airport outlet sold a considerable amount of pipes during its period of existence, covering all qualities, from the basic entry level Aran series up to the De Luxe Systems. They also stamped some mid range pipes with the mark 'SHANNON'. This was only for pipes issued and sold from Shannon airport and was not the same as the present day Shannon series.
With Ireland's joining of the European Community in 1973, a fourth miniature hallmark representation of the Celtic Glenisheen collar was added to the right of the date stamp for that year, hallmark letter F.
1985 Mark Twain Gold 150 anniversary
Sherlock Holmes
In 1975 Peterson issued the Centennial Limited Edition 1875 - 1975. The Peterson Centennial
pipes, were released in celebration of 100 years of the company's pipe making. Two pipes were issued, 100 of each shape,a sterling silver banded straight and a bent shape 69, both were offered for sale individually.
In 1979 and 1980 Peterson commenced production of the Mark Twain gold banded numbered limited edition, numbered 1 through to 400. The pipe proved to be so popular that the number was quietly increased to 1000. They sold originally for around $350. The issue was such a great success and prompted further production of more pipes in 1981 to satisfy demand, with the Mark Twain second numbered silver banded edition, numbered 1 through to 1000, each in special presentation boxes. Some were also issued with limited edition pewter statues of the famous author.
Peterson then went on to produce more non limited versions of the Mark Twain pipes, this time without numbers, from 1983 through to 1989.
In 1985 there was a 3rd numbered limited edition of 1000 pipes issued to commemorate the writer's 150th birthday anniversary.1835 – 1985. These were all gold banded and in a special presentation box in the shape of a Twain book. There must have been a fourth production of Mark Twain pipes, for there is evidence of Mark Twain pipes with silver dates for the 1990's.
In 1988 Peterson decided to issue a special Millennium Edition set of two pipes commemorating the City of Dublin's 1000 year founding (9881988). Hallmark letter C.
The Peterson Manx (Laxey Pipes Ltd.) Isle of Man factory partnership ceased operation about 1981 and the production of all African Meerschaum pipes was moved to Dublin and continued there until 1986.
1987 The Issue of the first Sherlock Holmes Series. Probably the most famous Peterson issue/ series of pipes.
The 'Original' series was introduced piece meal, every 6 months a new shape until the 7 day set was complete. The same procedure was later adopted for the next series, Return of Sherlock Holmes.
The second issue was called 'The Return of' and was based on the success of 'the Original',with seven additional new shapes and dedicated wooden rack being created. All similar to the first issue,with XL bowl sizes and similar sterling silver bands with the SH stamp.
There was also a miniature version of Sherlock Holmes pipes issued around the same time. It was named the 'Junior' Sherlock series. These were smaller bowled pipes at around two thirds the size of the originals and replicated those shapes.
1990 - PRESENT, THE PALMER ERA
Tom Palmer, a charted accountant by profession, bought the Peterson business in the early1990's in partnership with some other investors, he eventually bought them all out in 1995.
On looking back over the previous Peterson history,Tom considers that most of the changes which he has initiated between 1995 and the present, came in the very large extension to the modern pipe range and the constant issuing of new shapes and series. He considers that at the end of the day, a pipe is a consumer product,loosely defined and the consumer wants something new every so often.
Tom also believes that,”the major changes have been refocussing our outlook on the smoker and given him variety and something to look forward to every year."
"We have always stayed close to our roots –our pipes are still seen as 'traditional' and I think that this is very important”. This philosophy is seen in evidence each year now with enthusiasts eagerly awaiting the annual issue of new pipes,tobacco and accessories.
1898 Lion Head Meerschaum, Courtesy Jim Lilley collection (similar in figure to the iconic pipe on the old Peterson Patent catalogue shown above. The two figurative pipes on the catalog cover are briar pipes crafted by Louis Lamberthod in Saint-Claude, France. Peterson used to commission this kind of pipe from the French pipemaker, inventor of the famous machine able to duplicate figurative pipes.)
A large magnificent 1912 Peterson Meerschaum figural carving of a Mastiff Dog, Courtesy Jim Lilley collection
PATENT ERA PIPES
1901 Patent Example, Jim Lilley Collection
1900 Bog Oak, Jim Lilley Collection
A Huge 1900 Patent Deluxe Magnum with 20 inch stem. Above is a modern D6 Churchwarden for scale comparison.
A selection of patent era pipes, Jim Lilley collection
If I was asked if there was one single reason that motivates me to collect Peterson pipes, I would most probably respond that it was their distinct and marvellous design history. Which to my mind, as a self confessed old romantic opens a portal to more elegant times past and established Peterson as one of the forerunners of distinctive classic pipe designs of today.
I must admit I am really into this particular period of Peterson's pipe production and the pipes that were produced during the so called Patent era. In my humble opinion they are elegance personified!
Whenever I go through the old Peterson catalogues, it is like being a big kid all over again,drooling over illustrations and line drawings of pipes which I long to hold and admire. Owning such pipes is like having access to miniature time capsules.
* Illustrations from Peterson Patent catalogues from around 1900
* * * * * * * * * * * * The original patent No.12393 was issued to K&P in Great Britain and Ireland on Aug. 8, 1890, and in France Patent No.210944 on Jan. 22, 1891.
On May 1, 1894, U.S. Patent 519,135 was issued to Peterson for his unique construction of a pipe and mouthpiece, described as a “certain new and useful Improvement in Tobacco-Pipes,” that’s come to be known as the world famous Peterson 'System' pipe. In 1898 another of Peterson's innovative pipe inventions became available, the Peterson-Lip (P-Lip) mouthpiece, designed to offset the inhaled smoke to the roof of the mouth,thus avoiding tongue bite.There were several other similar patents awarded to K&P at around the same period(1900's).
* Illustrations of some of the various original Patents awarded to K&P
* * * * For collectors the Patent Era appears to have been from K&P's formation in 1890, until the expiration of the patent; through to approximately 1915. The late Mike Leverette in his 'A Peterson Dating Guide' extended this period to 1922.I believe this was purely to take cognisance of the P-lip patent which expired at around this time.
I would suggest the period 1890 to 1915 is the true 'Patent era'. From my humble observations the Patent stamping on pipes from that time, were more apparent and attributable with some degree of accuracy. Peterson pipes made during the majority of this period had no "Country of Manufacture" (COM) stamped on them. However, later around 1916, they began stamping their pipes "Made in Ireland" in a block format.
1890/91 Kapp Brothers Meerschaum
1890/91 Kapp Brothers MeerschaumIn fitted case
Unsmoked 1896 Patent with new stem
Unsmoked 1896 Patent with new stem in fitted case
SOMETHING SPECIAL
I Recently I acquired a wonderful and very unique Peterson pipe . The pipe was in need of some restoration,as it's original stem was missing. It is an 1896 bent Patent Deluxe.The original saddle stem which was missing, was probably an Amber one.
So what is so special apart from it's age? Well, it is otherwise in pristine un-smoked, brand new condition, as fresh as the day it came from the factory. The pipe is probably the oldest un-smoked Peterson in existence!!
My recent enquiry to Peterson's Dublin factory, has born fruit, those magicians have just returned the pipe with it's newly restored, made to measure, black acrylic saddle stem.
I am very pleased with the new replacement stem, as I consider this to be a very significant pipe from Petersons wonderful past.
At left and right are photo's of this marvelous unique pipe, now complete once more.
A UNIQUE VICTORIAN PETERSON PIPE
Occasionally I am amazed at the rare and unique Peterson pipes that surface . The hallmarks on this specimen are English(Birmingham) and dated the pipe at 1893,(date letter T). I have seen a few patent Pete's over the years,however this example is a first for me. The most obvious characteristic is the magnificent silver fretwork which encases the briar bowl. Such skilled silver-work was typical Victorian high-end surface embellishment, typical of the time. It shows intricate show stopping art, through the antique floral and leaf decoration. The stem is well worn and damaged and the case was a bit grubby. But hey! it is 119 years old!! I am happy with it. It is a very rare example of an art form, not normally associated with early Petersons and as such is a prime candidate for the Sandpiper Peterson Museum.


PIPE STEMS

PIPE SHAPE CHART

DUNHILL LETTER SHAPE CODE - PRE 1977
* CH
Skater
* CK
Bent Rhodesian
CK 1960
* EK
Square panel
EK 1958
* EC
Canadian
* ES
Canadian
* FE
Prince
* FET
Straight Prince
FET 1932 FET 1943
* HB
Bent
* HU
Hungarian
* K
Apple
K 1954 K 1927
* KB
Urn (Quaint shape)
* LB
Billiard
LB 1962
* LBS
Billiard (Longer) LBS 1950
* LC
Bent (Larger)
LC 1953
* LF
Dublin
* LOX
Bulldog
* LV
Straight Brandy
* O
Squat Bulldog
* OR
Strt. Rhodesian
* OX
Saddle Bulldog
OX 1960 OX 1972
* OXS
Bulldog
* P
1/2 Bent Bulldog
* PO
1/4 Bent Bulldog
* R
Pot
R 1950
* SU
Barrel (?)
* TLY
Bent
* U
Shield Bulldog
U 1923
* US
Quaint shape
US 1983
* UT
Quaint shape
UT 1927
* VS
Brandy
VS 1962
* W
Bamboo

A DUNHILL PIPE DATING GUIDE
Alfred Dunhill began to manufacture briar smoking pipes in 1910; the famous white spot first appeared on top of the hand-cut vulcanite mouthpiece in 1915 in order that the customer should know which part faced upwards. At about this same time a one year guarantee against defects was offered on the bowl of each pipe, and to insure against far older Dunhill pipes being replaced under this guarantee a simple dating code, showing the year of manufacture, was devised and stamped onto each pipe bowl. This code is still in use today.
Over the ensuing years great interest has arisen over the "mystique" of the Dunhill pipe in general and the dating code in particular. Pipe collectors, especially in America, pride themselves on having acquired Dunhill pipes in prime condition which were made in the 1920's, 1930's and 1940's. Some collectors strive to acquire only those Dunhill pipes made between 1920 (when Dunhill stopped buying bowls turned in France in favor of those turned in London at the newly opened Dunhill bowl-turning facility) and 1928 (the year of Alfred Dunhill's retirement). Consequently, much confusion has arisen over the dating code because it has not been standardized over the years, and seemingly minor differences in the code can mean a difference of years, even decades, in the manufacture of the pipe.
Adding to this is the fact that the firm has used a great many special stampings depending on what part of the world to which their pipes were destined, and that sometimes these stampings or codes were used for only three or four months duration.
Leading to even greater confusion is that many pipes were simply stamped incorrectly; at times one part or another of the code is not to be found on a given pipe.
Taking all this into account it should not be surprising that the original and complete dating code list, in possession of the firm's archivist at 30 Duke Street, is some twenty eight pages long. And even if this list was made available it would be of little use to any but the most expert because it can only be used in conjunction with the most precise knowledge of the Dunhill pipe as it has changed in appearance over the years.
But enough of the complications in dating Dunhill pipes. What follows is a "general guide" as to dating; with it the reader should be able to date the majority of Dunhill pipes with which he/she comes into contact.
TYPES OF FINISH:
1. BRUYERE -introduced in 1910; signified by an "A" (meaning' best quality) on the side of the shank through 1975. "Inner Tube" stamped on shank through 1934.
2. ROOT - introduced in 1930; signified by an "R" stamped on the shank through 1975.
3. SHELL - introduced in 1917.
4. TANSHELL -introduced in 1953.
5. REDBARK -introduced in 1973. (_PIPEDIA SYSOP NOTE:_ Other sources indicate the Redbark was introduced in 1972
6. CUMBERLAND -introduced in 1980.
SPECIAL SERIES:
H.W. "HAND, WORKED" - A hand-carved (as opposed to machine-carved) pipe of classic design. "H.W." stamped on shank. Not made after 1930's.
D. R. "DEAD ROOT" - Denotes Dunhill straight grain pipes. The bruyere finish was used on these pipes through 1929; root finish was used thereafter. "D.R." stamped on shank.
O.D. "OWN DESIGN" - Denotes a pipe designed by the customer and carved to order. "O.D." stamped on shank. Not made after late 1920's or early 1930's. In 1950 a special series of "ODA" pipes was begun and continued through 1975. These were not carved to order.
COLLECTOR - Denotes hand-turned bowls (as opposed to machine-turned) made from plateau briar. Introduced in 1978.
DATING OF BRUYERE AND ROOT FINISHES - 1925 ONWARDS
PIPEDIA CONTRIBUTOR'S NOTE: I am hoping to have actual photos of this nomenclature here. If you have any, and would be willing to contribute them, please E-mail me. Also, if you see any errors here, please E-mail. It is very difficult to tell from the web version I was working from. If you have the original and can scan it and send it to me, that would fantastic!:
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1925:
NOTE: For the years 1925 through 1941 the suffix number (denoting the year of manufacture) is sometimes after the patent number and sometimes after the word ENGLAND.
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1926-34: As above but with annual change of suffix number 6(1926) 7(1927) 8(1928) 9(1929) 0(1930) 11(1931) 12(1932) 13(1933) 14(1934).
NOTE: For the years 1925-34 other patent numbers were sometimes used in place of 116989/17. Some examples are: 5861/12 (English); 1343253/20 (U.S.)
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1935-41:
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1942-50:
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1951: As above but with the suffix1 after the word ENGLAND; in addition a group number e.g. 4 R or 3 A is introduced for the first time.
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1952: As above but with the suffix2 after the word ENGLAND. Also, instead of DUNHILL/LONDON the finish of the pipe is stamped under the word Dunhill e.g. DUNHILL/ROOT BRIAR
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1953-54: As above but with 3 or 4 as suffix according to the year made.
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1955-60: From 1955 the patent number is no longer shown on the pipe. Examples for this period read:
-------------------------
-------------------------
1961-70: Same as above but with the line under the suffix number omitted. In addition from 1965-70 the size of the suffix number is the same as the D in ENGLAND.
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1971-75: As above but with a double suffix number (sometimes underlined).
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1976-77: During this period the group number and finish code were dropped and the old shape numbers were dropped in favor of a new system. Shape numbers during this period had either 3, 4, or 5 digits.
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1978-82: In 1978 shape numbers all became five digit. Also the double digit suffix number (sometimes underlined) again became smaller than the D in ENGLAND.
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DATING OF SHELL, TANSHELL, REDBARK, AND CUMBERLAND FINISHES-1925 ONWARDS:
PIPEDIA CONTRIBUTOR'S NOTE: I am hoping to have actual photos of this nomenclature here. If you have any, and would be willing to contribute them, please E-mail me. Also, if you see any errors here, please E-mail. It is very difficult to tell from the web version I was working from. If you have the original and can scan it and send it to me, that would fantastic!:
1925:
-------------------------
1926-34: As above but with annual change of suffix number 6 (1926) 7 (1927) 8 (1928) 9 (1929) 0 (1930) 11 (1931) 12 (1932) 13 (1933) 14 (1934)
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NOTE: For the years 1925-34 other patent numbers were sometimes used in place of 119708/17 & 116989/17. Some examples are: 5861/12 (English); 1341418/20 (U.S.); 1130806/15 (U.S.); 1343253/20 U.S.); 1861910/32 (U.S. - used only for Vernon Dunhill fitment pipe).
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1935-41:
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1942-50:
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1951: As above but with the suffix after the word ENGLAND; in addition a group number e.g. 2 S; 4 S is introduced for the first time.
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1952:
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1953-54: The Tanshell finish is introduced in 1953. As above but with the suffix3 or 4 after the word ENGLAND.
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1955-60: From 1955 the patent number is no longer shown on the pipe.
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1961-70: As above, but with the line under the suffix number omitted. From 1965-70 the size of the suffix number is the same as the D in ENGLAND.
-------------------------
1971-75 As above, but with a double digit suffix number (sometimes underlined). The Redbark is introduced in 1973 (_PIPEDIA SYSOP NOTE:_ Other sources indicate the Redbark was introduced 1972
-------------------------
1976-77: During this period the group number and finish code were dropped and the old shape numbers were dropped in favor of a new system. Shape numbers during this period had either 3, 4, or 5 digits.
-------------------------
1978-82: In 1978 shape numbers all became five digit. Also the double digit suffix number (sometimes underlined) again became smaller than the D in ENGLAND. The Cumberland finish is introduced in 1980.

THE PRE 1925 DUNHILL PIPE
John C. Loring
(9/97)
Commencing business in 1893 as an auto supply house, Dunhill began producing its own oil cured briar smoking pipes in 1910. In the following decade and a half almost all the elements of the now classic Dunhill pipe line came into place, for instance the two principal finishes - a mahogany "Bruyere" and a black sandblast "Shell" - the metal ?inner tube? fitting and sandblast patents, most all the classic shapes, the white dotted bit, the one year guarantee, and the associated date code stampings. In recent years a number of articles have addressed how to use those date code stampings to date Dunhill briars dating after 1925 but virtually none have addressed the earlier years (R.D. Field 'A Dunhill Pipe Dating Guide' Pipe Smoker Vol 2 No.1 Winter '84; the Levin Pipes International dating guide in its Dunhill catalogues compilation; 'A Dunhill Pipe Primer' The Smoker's Pipeline, Vol 10, No. 4 March '93; see Chart, and Pipeworks @ Wilke Dunhill & Barling, 'General Information and Dating Guide'). In fact however, a good many Dunhill briars dating to those earlier years may still be found today and working with a 1980?s letter from the long since retired Dunhill archivist, S.F.Gomersall (as recounted in an article by Michael Friedberg published The Smoker?s Pipeline, Vol 6, No 5 July ?89 p. 13 See Article ), pipes in my collection and some of others, I find that most such pipes may be quite accurately dated.
A 1910 - 1925 DATING GUIDE
BRUYERE - PRIOR TO OCTOBER 21, 1918
_1910 - OCTOBER 20, 1918 - "DUKE STREET"._ INITIALLY ONLY "BRUYERE" PIPES WERE PRODUCED. THROUGH JUNE OF 1918 THEY WERE STAMPED ON A STRAIGHT LINE:
"A DUNHILL
DUKE ST. S.W."
FROM JUNE 1918 THROUGH OCTOBER 1918 A SMALL SUBSCRIPT " O " (SOMETIMES CALLED A "STOP") WAS ADDED AFTER THE "A".
THE ONLY FINISH TO EVER BEAR THIS ?DUKE STREET? STAMPING WAS THE BRUYERE AND AFTER JUNE 1918 THE ONLY OTHER TIME DUNHILL HAS EMPLOYED THE STAMPING WAS IN 1985 IN CONNECTION WITH ITS TWO BRUYERE PIPE STERLING BANDED 75TH ANNIVERSARY SET. THESE ANNIVERSARY PIPES (MODEL 1, A SMALL ¾ BENT, AND MODEL 3, A SMALL BILLIARD) ARE READILY RECOGNIZABLE AS THE REVERSE SIDE OF THE SHANK IS STAMPED "75 YEARS ....." AND THE STERLING BAND HAS A FLORAL LETTER "L" AS ONE OF THE HALLMARK STRIKES. THUS IF YOU FIND A ?DUKE STREET? STAMPED PIPE WITHOUT THESE MARKINGS, YOU KNOW IT DATES FROM BEFORE OCTOBER 21, 1918.
SOME FURTHER REFINEMENT OF THE PRE- OCTOBER 1918 PERIOD IS ALSO POSSIBLE. WHILE DUNHILL INTRODUCED IT?S INITIAL "INNER TUBE" FITTING (A METAL REMOVABLE TUBE THAT FITS IN THE SHANK TO EASE CLEANING AND REMOVAL OF TOBACCO FRAGMENTS) AROUND 1911 IT DID NOT SECURE IT?S INITIAL PATENT FOR THE SAME UNTIL 1913, THUS ?DUKE STREET? PIPES WITH PATENT NUMBER STAMPINGS MAY BE DATED TO THE 1913 - 1918 PERIOD. SIMILARLY, IF THE ?DUKE STREET? STAMPED PIPES ALSO ARE STAMPED PAT. 1914 OR PAT. MAR.9.15 THEY MAY BE DATED TO EITHER THE 1914 OR 1915 - 1918 PERIOD RESPECTIVELY. HOWEVER, IT MUST BE EMPHASIZED THAT THE LACK OF SUCH PATENT STAMPINGS ON A ?DUKE STREET? PIPE IS NOT INDICATIVE OF AN EARLIER PERIOD.
NOMENCLATURE & EXAMPLES
BRUEYRE - SUBSEQUENT TO OCTOBER 1918
_OCTOBER 21, 1918 - TO YEAR?S END - ?EQUAL LENGTH LONDON?._ On October 21, 1918 the "duke st. s. w" stamping was changed to "LONDON". For a two-month period, through the end of 1918 this "LONDON" stamping was equal in length to the "DUNHILL" stamping immediately above it.
This is the only time that the "DUNHILL LONDON" stampings are of equal length. Thus if the that stamping is of equal length you know the pipe dates from late 1918.
NOMENCLATURE & EXAMPLES
_1919 - ?ARCHED DUNHILL?_. In 1919 the "DUNHILL" stamping was changed from a straight line to a shallow arch. This is the only time that this stamping was employed. There are two variations of the arched "DUNHILL" stamping. From January 3, 1919 to May 20, 1919 the straight line "LONDON" stamping immediately below the arched "DUNHILL" is within the compass of the arch, while from May 21 to Year?s End it is equal to the compass with the "L" and final "N" of "LONDON" being immediately below the "D" and the final "L" of "DUNHILL". Thus if the "DUNHILL" stamping of the pipe forms a shallow arch you know the pipe was made in 1919.
NOMENCLATURE & EXAMPLES
_1920 (ACTUALLY TO NOVEMBER 1920) - ?NO CODE OR TAILS?._ 1920 is the trickiest year to date since absence rather then presence are the keys, so please bear with me for some explanations.
First, the ?code?. Dunhill began it?s one year pipe guarantee policy in 1921 and in order to determine the pipe?s year of purchase, sometime in that year it began adding a raised underlined "1" immediately after the "MADE IN ENGLAND" or patent stamping. In 1922 this number was changed to "2" and increased by a factor of one each year through 1925 (see standard dating code guides for years thereafter). Prior to 1921 there was no such code stamping.
Second, the ?tails?. Customarily the "D" of the "DUNHILL" stamping is made up of a vertical backbone line met flush at the top and the bottom by a semi-circle. This is called a "D" without tails or simply "no tails" and you can see it by looking at virtually any Dunhill pipe you pick up. However, from November 1920 to apparently sometime in 1922 the "D" stamping was "with tails" meaning that the ends of the semi circle clearly and noticeably extended past the vertical backbone line at both the top and bottom (the two extensions being the ?tails?).
With this in mind, a Dunhill Bruyere from 1920 is one that like all pre 1921/1922 Dunhill pipes does not have a date code and within that twelve year universe of pipes, does not have a ?duke street? stamping, does not have an arched "DUNHILL" and does not have a "DUNHILL" "D" with tails. Or to put it affirmatively it looks like most any other pre World War II Dunhill Bruyere except that the date code is absent. But here?s the rub, pun intended, prior to the war on occasion pipes inadvertently left the factory without a date code or more often with date codes less heavily struck then the adjacent nomenclature. Thus the absence of a date code can more often be more indicative of subsequent pipe buffing or factory error then of a 1920 pipe. As a consequence dating a pipe to 1920 is always a judgment call and even if all the objective tests are met ultimately rests on a subjective ?feel? for the period.
NOMENCLATURE & EXAMPLES
_1921 (ACTUALLY FROM NOVEMBER 1920) - TAILS AND/OR CODE._ 1921 is far less problematic. The key distinction between 1920 and 1921 is that beginning in November of 1920 the "D" in the "DUNHILL" stamping is with tails. As Dunhill appears to have discontinued the tails stamping sometime in 1922, a pipe having a "D" with tails? and without a "2" date code can be comfortably dated to 1921 (note that even if the "2" was buffed off or omitted in the factory the uniqueness of the "D" with tails means that at most you are a year off in the dating).
It also appears that sometime in 1921, probably late in the year, a raised underlined "1" date code was added after either the "MADE IN ENGLAND" or patent stamping.
NOMENCLATURE & EXAMPLES
_1922 - 1925 - DATE CODE._ FROM 1922 ON PIPES CAN BE RELIABLY DATED BASED ON THE DATE CODE STAMPING THAT IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWS EITHER THE "MADE IN ENGLAND" OR PATENT STAMPING AND IS GENERALLY FOUND EITHER RAISED AND/OR UNDERLINED. "2" INDICATES 1922, "3" 1923, "4" 1924 AND "5" 1925. (While these single digits were also used as date codes for the early ?40s, ?50s and ?60s, the later pipes can be readily distinguished. For instance pipes from the ?40s do not have an "INNER TUBE" stamping but do have a patent number while those certain bent shaped pipes from 1922 - 1925 that lack the "INNER TUBE" stamping will also not be stamped with a patent number. Additionally generally speaking the patent number used on pipes from the ?40s is from the 1930?s (e.g. 417574/34) obviously ruling out an earlier manufacture date. In a similar mode pipes from the ?50s and ?60s have size stampings (e.g. a circled 4), a stamping not found on pipes made before the ?50s. Further in 1952 the "LONDON" stamping on Bruyere pipes made before 1952 was changed to "BRUYERE".)
NOMENCLATURE & EXAMPLES
SHELL
_1919 - 1921 - NO DATE CODE._ ALTHOUGH DUNHILL APPLIED FOR IT'S ENGLISH SANDBLAST PATENT IN OCTOBER OF 1917 IT WAS NOT GRANTED UNTIL OCTOBER, 1918 AND IT IS BELIEVED THAT MANUFACTURE OF THAT FINISH DID NOT BEGIN UNTIL AFTER THAT GRANT OR EFFECTIVELY 1919. IT APPEARS FOR ALL PRACTICABLE PURPOSES THAT THE INITIAL 1919 SHELL STAMPING WAS "DUNHILL?S "SHELL"" WHEN THERE WAS ALSO A "MADE IN ENGLAND" STAMPING OR "DUNHILL?S "SHELL BRIAR"" WHEN THERE WAS NO ADDITIONAL "MADE IN ENGLAND" STAMPING AND IN BOTH CASES ADDITIONALLY A PATENT STAMPING (It would also appear that there was a prototype stamping in either 1918 or 1919 that omitted both "SHELL" and "SHELL BRIAR", simply reading "DUNHILL?S" but either that stamping was never generally used or was used for only a brief time).
With the same caveats directed to the 1920 Bruyeres applying here, generally speaking the absence of a date code dates a Shell briar to the 1919 - 1921 period. Some further definition is possible based on the patent stampings. A "/20" patent number without a date code obviously eliminates 1919 dating the pipe to 1920/1921 and a "PAT. MAR. 9.15" with a "PAT. APP FOR" stamping dates the pipe to 1919/1920 (note however, that a "PAT.1914" with a "PAT. APP FOR" offers no such definition and can date to as late as 1923).
NOMENCLATURE & EXAMPLES
_1922 - 1925 - DATE CODES._ FROM 1922 FORWARD THE SAME DATE CODES DISCUSSED WITH REFERENCE TO BRUYERES ALSO APPLY TO SHELLS.
NOMENCLATURE & EXAMPLES
OTHER NOMENCLATURE ISSUES, COMMENTS & CURIOSITIES
_"MADE IN ENGLAND" & "FABRICATION ANGLAISE"._ While "MADE IN ENGLAND" & "FABRICATION ANGLAISE", as the case may be, appear to have become a uniform alternative stampings by the mid 1920?s, initially those stampings appear to have been reserved only for pipes intended for export.
_"SHELL" VS "SHELL BRIAR"._ This seems to be a matter of ascetics, the former being used in conjunction with a "MADE IN ENGLAND" stamping and the latter being used when the "MADE IN ENGLAND" stamping is absent.
_SHELL MODEL NUMBERS._ While all Shell pipes began as standard Bruyere model shapes the deep sandblasting of the period meant that the resulting pipe could be far from standard. During this period and for a time after the nomenclature examples as well as catalogues seems to suggest that there was in a place a dual model number system, one number reflecting the original Bruyere model shape and the second, a single digit, reflecting a Shell category. The particulars of this apparent dual system and it?s evolution however, are unknown to me.
_"INNER TUBE"._ While generally speaking the "INNER TUBE" stamping is standard for Bruyeres during this period, when an inner tube was not fitted in the pipe (e.g. many bent shapes) the stamping together with related patent numbers was omitted.
_"A"._ In this period Bruyere pipes were uniformly stamped with an "A", however, sometimes the "A" was circled and sometimes not. Whether the "A" is circled or not has no bearing on the date of the pipe. I am presently unawares of the distinction underlying the two styles. Example
_STOP AFTER THE "A"._ ON BRUYERES BETWEEN JUNE AND OCTOBER 1918 AND WITH SOME NON DATE RELATED OMISSIONS, FROM 1920 THROUGH AT LEAST 1925, A ?STOP? (A SUBSCRIPT "O" AND IN ONE KNOWN INSTANCE SQUARE SHAPED) WAS STAMPED IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE "A". THE RATIONALE FOR THE STAMPING APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN ASCETIC AND OTHER THEN DATING A ?DUKE STREET? STAMPED PIPE TO THE SECOND HALF OF 1918, THE STAMPING APPEARS TO HAVE NO INTERPRETIVE VALUE. Example
_"DR"._ DUNHILL USED A "DR" STAMPING TO DENOTE STRAIGHT GRAINED PIPES AS EARLY AS THE ?DUKE STREET? (1910 - 1918) PERIOD. HOWEVER, SUCH STRAIGHT GRAINING IS LARGELY LOST IN THE DARK BRUYERE FINISH EFFECTIVELY MAKING THE STAMPING A CURIOSITY UNTIL THE ROOT FINISH, WHICH ALLOWS FOR THE EFFECTIVE DISPLAY OF THE GRAIN, WAS INTRODUCED IN 1930 (from that time on Bruyeres were never stamped "DR" regardless of grain - since at least in the pre war period the Root finished pipes were not a result of grading the grain of potential Bruyere briar but rather were made from a different briar altogether one can occasionally find an exceptionally grained post 1930 Bruyere that in an earlier time might have been stamped "DR").
_PATENT INFORMATION._ PATENTS IN THIS PERIOD REFER EITHER TO THE INNER TUBE (INCLUDING THE INNER TUBE WITH FLANGE REFINEMENT) OR THE SANDBLAST PROCESS. THE YEAR DATE AFTER THE SLASH FOR ENGLISH PATENTS REFERS TO THE APPLICATION DATE WHILE FOR US PATENTS TO THE GRANT DATE. WHILE THE PATENT NUMBERS ARE GENERALLY GIVEN (WITH OR WITHOUT A SLASH YEAR DATE) A PAT. MAR.9.15 AND PAT. 1914 STAMPING REFERRING RESPECTIVELY TO THE US AND CANADIAN INNER TUBE PATENTS WAS ALSO USED, APPARENTLY UP TO 1924. PAT. APP. FOR IS A GENERIC STAMPING, E.G. IF PRECEDED BY "PAT. 1914" STAMPING IT REFERS TO THE CANADIAN SANDBLAST PATENT APPLICATION, BUT IF PRECEDED BY A PAT. MAR.9.15" STAMPING IT REFERS TO THE US SANDBLAST PATENT APPLICATION. PERTINENT PATENT NUMBERS FOLLOW:
INNER TUBE
INNER TUBE
with FLANGE
SANDBLAST
ENGLISH
5861/12
116989/17
119708/17
UNITED STATES
1130806/15
1343253/20
1341418/20
CANADIAN
158709/14
197365/20
??????
FRENCH
?????
491232/19
??????
_"EX"._ THE DUNHILL ONE YEAR GUARANTEE WAS GOOD FOR ONLY ONE REPLACEMENT PIPE. ACCORDINGLY, A REPLACEMENT PIPE WAS GIVEN A SUPPLEMENTARY "EX" STAMPING TO PRECLUDE FURTHER REPLACEMENT. THIS STAMPING WAS PUT IN USE AT THE SAME TIME AS (OR AT LEAST LESS THEN A YEAR AFTER) THE DATE CODE STAMPING.
_"DAMAGED PRICE" & "X" OUT._ IN THIS PERIOD DUNHILL APPARENTLY MARKETED DAMAGED PIPES STAMPED AS SUCH, E.G. A BRUYERE AND A SHELL RESPECTIVELY STAMPED "DAMAGED PRICE 3?/6?" AND "X" (OBLITERATING PART OF "DUNHILL?S") HAVE BEEN FOUND. Example
_INCONSISTENT NOMENCLATURE._ I?M NOT SURE WHETHER IT WAS BARRY LEVIN OR BOB HAMLIN WHO FIRST RECOUNTED THE STORY OF A VISIT TO A FAMOUS PIPE MAKER WHO EXPLAINED THAT SOME NOMENCLATURE CHANGES WERE SIMPLY THE RESULT OF MISLAYING THE RIGHT STAMPING TOOL AND THEN LATER FINDING IT AGAIN, BUT THE POINT IS NOT ALL PIPE NOMENCLATURE IS CONSISTENT OR LENDS ITSELF TO ?LOGICAL? EXPLANATION. SIMILARLY MICHAEL FRIEDBERG IN HIS ?89 ARTICLE ON EARLY DUNHILL DATING ADVISED THAT "IN THE EARLY YEARS, DUNHILL WAS NOT ALWAYS CONSISTENT IN ITS STAMPINGS." QUOTING FOR SUPPORT DUNHILL ARCHIVIST GOMERSALL?S LETTER TO THE EFFECT THAT:
"We hope you can appreciate that it is only with some trepidation we issue information on this subject especially in reference form, for from our experience, the interpretation of such data, can be and often is, much adrift. The markings have to taken as points of evidence and weighed in the balance of experience and ?feel?, for at times all the factors do not add up for the uninitiated to make a positive judgment."
Alfred Dunhill was very much a perfectionist, and while inconsistency and inadvertent omission are a necessary part of the human condition, I interpret Mr. Gomersall?s comments differently, for I have found that with respect to Dunhill nomenclature, seeming inconsistencies when viewed with sufficient nomenclature examples or given thought do in fact reveal a fairly consistent logic. So rather, I interpret Mr. Gomersall as simply saying that early Dunhill nomenclature is not without it?s complexities, that the factory records are incomplete for this time period, and the time increasingly distant. Thus when faced with seeming inconsistencies (e.g. the circled and uncircled "A") I believe it is most probably the result of having not yet developed a sufficient universe of pipe nomenclature examples to allow for an understanding of the underlying logic or alternatively simply not having thought the complexities through. To wit, two examples:
Example 1: The apparent "MADE IN ENGLAND" and "SHELL" vs "SHELL BRIAR" inconsistencies, the logical explanations for which only became (hopefully) apparent when sufficient nomenclature examples were put together and compared (of course there is always the danger that more examples will throw the ?logical? explanations out the window).
Example 2: I have a Dunhill Bruyere with clear 1920 stampings (i.e. a "D" without tails rather then with tails) except for an equally clear raised underlined "1" date code. One could view this as simply an inconsistent "DUNHILL" stamp use, on the other hand knowing that Dunhill has long had a history of supplementary stampings dating back to at least 1922 (e.g. the "EX" example above), it seems far more likely to me that this pipe was manufactured and initially stamped in 1920 but remained unsold at the time the one year guarantee was introduced in 1921 and received a supplementary date code stamp at that time. Example
THE PIPE
Having discussed the nomenclature of the pre ?25 Dunhill pipe it would seem appropriate to close with a few words about the pipe itself.
The pre ?25 Dunhill comes in only two finishes the Bruyere and Shell. In other words if the striking appearance of beautiful grain is important to you, give these pipes a pass, for even a DR Bruyere can?t begin to hold a candle in terms of readily visible grain to a post 1930 well grained Root briar. Similarly if you only like large pipes the pre ?25 Dunhill is likewise generally a pass, for while the pre ?25 Dunhill is found in a full range of shapes, in general it is an appreciably smaller pipe - roughly a group 3 by today?s standards - and pipes larger then what is today a group 4 are relatively rare. On the other hand if you are looking for a medium or smaller pipe with great smoking characteristics, a warm tactile feel, and exceptional character I doubt you will ever find better.
The pre ?25 bit is a thicker, rounder vulcanite, which in my view works exceptionally well for a smaller pipe, less so for larger pieces.
Due no doubt in large part to age, the pre ?25 Bruyere finished pipes tends to have developed a wonderful patina, warm to the touch and unsurpassed by most any other pipe I know of save Root briars from the mid to late ?30s which are perhaps the more exceptional in that regard.
The pre ?25 Shell is an unusually craggy sandblast giving a piece great character although admittedly often at the expense of unbalancing the shape. I find however, that this works well for the smaller sized bowl, less so for the larger. For the larger sizes, e.g. the LB or 120, the more refined, better balanced but still craggy blasts of the ?30s and early ?50s are preferable, the reverse in my opinion being true for the medium and small shapes.
The Dunhill, like almost all English briars is an oil cured pipe and I have come to the firm belief that these pipes truly mellow with age. You can sense it with briars from the ?50s and as far as I am concerned it becomes eminently demonstrable in Dunhills from the ?30s and before. A post war Dunhill is a great smoke but a pre war piece is a taste of heaven. I have had less then good smoking post war Dunhills and less then good smoking pre war pipes of other manufacturers, but after being cleaned up I have never had less then an excellent smoking pre war Dunhill. In my opinion such older Dunhills represent a superlative marriage of age and quality pipe making.
In short, while I must admit a preference for a ?30s Root Briar or ?30s - early ?50s Shell Briar when it comes to the larger size bowl or for the grain, in my opinion when it comes to the medium and smaller sizes a Dunhill from the 1920s or 1910s is unsurpassed.
END

THE DUNHILL PIPE: A COMPARISON OF THEN AND NOW
THIS ARTICLE WAS THE FIRST I PUBLISHED FOR _PIPE SMOKER_-IN THE FALL 1983 ISSUE
We are pleased to introduce R.D. "David" Field as a new Associate Editor. David was recommended by Ben Rapaport who sent us the following article which Mr. Field had written last year. David is employed by the city of Philadelphia as a social worker. He is regarded as an expert on Dunhill Pipes and is also knowledgeable on Castellos and other brands. At forty-one· years old, David has been a pipe smoker for many years and has dealt extensively in pre-smoked collectibles. he has had articles printed abroad ("Amici della Pipa" and "Smoking") and should be welcome to the staff of PIPE SMOKER.
As a pipe collector, a pipe hobbyist, and as a Dunhill principal pipe dealer, I hear comments over and over again about the comparative merits of the older pipes versus the newer models. Most discussion centers on the quality of the briar and the sweetness of the smoke. I hear comments such as "I love my old Dunhill pipes, but these new ones ... I don't know."
People I consider to be very knowledgeable on the subject of 20th Century briar swear that, by far, the sweetest smoke comes from those Dunhill pipes bearing a patent number _(pre-1955); _they will not even smoke those made after _1968, _believed to be of substandard quality.
The used pipe trade has followed the same trend - patent number Dunhills are commanding a higher price than those made from _1955-1968, _and a still higher price than those made after _1968._
Due to the mystique surrounding the older Dunhill pipe, there is, indeed, a need to explore any factual basis behind the "myth". This, reader, is the purpose of this article.
Let's look at a bit of history behind the Dunhill pipe - from its inception to present day production. Alfred Dunhill was a rather inventive fellow, having taken a harness making concern into the automobile age by turning it to the manufacturer of auto accessories, and then operating as a "patent consultant". When he opened a tobacconist shop _in 1907, _he knew nothing beyond the ordinary of pipes, tobacco, and the art of blending. His curious mind prompted him to listen to his customers' wants and then to try different methods to satisfy those wants. By early _1910, _Dunhill was ready to offer his own make of pipe as an alternative to those coming from France that were highly varnished and so clogged the pores of the briar. These first pipes were of two distinct internal designs: one followed the French design that is the standard non-filter design of today; the other, the "Absorbal" pipe, used a circular cellulose filter that was pushed into the hollowed-out body of the pipe shank. It is interesting to note here that these first Dunhill pipes and all Dunhill pipes made through _1919 _had French-turned bowls that were then finished in London by the Dunhill firm.
In 1912, Dunhill invented and patented the "inner tube", an aluminum insert designed to keep the pipe "innards" clean; in 1915, the "white spot" appeared to help the customer know which side of the hand-cut vulcanite stem should be uppermost; 1917 saw the introduction of the first Dunhill sandblast - the "Shell".
In producing the "Shell", Dunhill used only Algerian briar, then in great abundance, because it had a softer character than the Italian briar used in the smooth "Bruyere" finish. This soft character, in combination with the heat derived from Dunhill's unique oil curing process, led to an unusually deep and craggy sandblasted pipe. In the early years of production, Dunhill would not even stamp shape numbers on his "shell" pipes, since the shape of identically turned bowls varied so after curing and sandblasting.
Dunhill's "root briar" was introduced in 1930 (by this time, Alfred Dunhill was two years into retirement and his brother Herbert had charge of the business) and the light brown finish proved highly popular in America, less so in Europe. Next, some twenty three years later, came the "Tanshell" a sandblasted Sardinian briar with a tan or brown finish. It took twenty-six more years before another finish - the "Cumberland" - appeared. The Cumberland is also sandblasted, has a dark brown finish, a smooth beveled top, and a bi-color vulcanite stem (this same stem first appeared in 1930 on the root briar).
As I mentioned previously, no Dunhill pipe was completely fashioned in England until 1920 when a bowl-turning section was opened in the London factory. Before this time "turned" but unfinished pipe bowls were imported from France and then finished, oil-cured and, in the case of "Shells", sandblasted in London.
The briar situation must be investigated in order to compare the new Dunhill pipe with the old there have been changes. Originally, Italian briar had been used for the "Bruyere" and "Root", Algerian for the "Shell", and Sardinian for the "Tanshell". The age of the briar used, averaged between 60and 100 years. In the 1960's, the briar situation changed drastically. The Algerian supply slowed to a trickle, and the Italian government declared that its briar could only be used by pipe makers within its borders. To that time, Dunhill had a virtual monopoly on briar supply; now it had to search for new sources and could no longer reserve one type of briar for one pipe finish.
This change was readily apparent in the "Shell" finish. Deprived of Algerian briar, Dunhill had to use Grecian briar, a harder variety, and so the "shell" pipe now received a more shallow sandblast. As well, the wood was less aged between
50
and
80
years. Additionally, the briar burls were smaller and had more flaws, so there were less perfect bowls being turned, and - more waste! Conversely, the new briar was harder, lighter, and had much better grain than the old. Dunhill was never known for beautiful grain patterns in its smooth-finished pipes, but those produced today are outstanding when compared with those of twenty years ago.
In the manufacture of a quality pipe, much attention is paid to making and fitting the stem, or mouthpiece. Injection-molding methods are not used here; instead, each mouthpiece is hand-cut from sheet or rod vulcanite; the tenon is hand-cut and hand shaped to the correct circumference; and the mouthpiece is then hand-fitted to the pipe. The original Dunhill mouthpiece had quite a thick lip that I personally find quite uncomfortable. The "comfy" mouthpiece, with a thinner and wider lip, was developed in the 1920's, and the "F/T" (fishtail) mouthpiece was designed in the 1930's. In 1976,faced with rising labor costs, the firm used a mouthpiece-cutting machine. The machined mouthpieces had a very thick lip (much like the pre "comfy" lip); complaints poured in and the machine was scrapped. Present-day mouthpieces have a lip thickness somewhere between the "comfy" and the "F/T".
I have visited the Dunhill pipe factory three times in the past two years and on each visit, I have had the opportunity not only to view every facet of pipe production, but also to converse with those in charge of production. During my visit in December 1980, I had a long conversation with David Webb, factory manager. Mr. Webb has been with Dunhill for the past five years, has been factory manager since late 1979, and is very knowledgeable. I had brought my personal collection of thirteen unsmoked Dunhills dating from 19201927 - nine Bruyeres and four Shells and three 1920 vintage "Shells" that I smoke. As Mr. Webb looked them over, he laughed: "If these Shell Briars came out of production today, half of them would land in the reject bin."
Stunned, I asked: "Why?"
"In the case of the billiard, that's a very deep sandblast in spots, taking away about half the wall thickness; and the shank is out of line. The mouthpiece on the smaller billiard is much too thick where it meets the shank and would have to be cut down. The Prince is totally off-shape on one side of the bowl."
I protested, stating that these were the very reasons for their great character.
"Yes, they do add character. And, to my mind, they are beautiful pipes. We can make them like this but ..." and he went on to explain that because Dunhill sells to a worldwide market, the firm tends to get pushed and pulled in different directions at the same time. On the Continent and in the Far East, there is no demand for deeply-shelled pipes; furthermore, these will often be returned to the factory as "not of Dunhill quality".
An associate of David Webb, Bill Taylor, told me of the time he was working in quality control at the factory. Richard Dunhill came by and picked up one of the "Shells" Bill rejected.
"Why is this in the reject bin?"
"Because the sandblast is too deep and uneven."
"This pipe has character. Send it to America. Americans know good pipes!"
The Dunhill pipe has always been synonymous with the word quality in pipe making. Much of this value judgment, I feel, has to do with the firm's unique "oil curing" process invented by Alfred Dunhill. This process, in my estimation, does three things - it makes the tobacco taste unusually "nutty"; it has a very low rate of bowl "burn-out" compared with other makes; and, it helps the pipe to smoke well even after many years. This process is still very closely guarded by the firm and is not normally shown to visitors. I was shown the process because I brought a copy of the original patent with me and specifically raised the issue.
In order to discern quality in a pipe, one has to look at only a few things (of course much of the real judgment is in the smoking): the turned and bored bowl; the shank bore; the tenon/ferrule connection; the lip of the mouthpiece; the look and feel of the finish. Dunhill, I submit, has as high a standard of quality as it has ever had. This does not mean that every Dunhill released for sale, today, is a perfect pipe, for some are not! What it does mean is that the percentage of imperfect Dunhills is no greater today than, say, 1924. I have discovered two imperfect pipes in my 1920-1927 collection.
According to David Webb, the Dunhill pipe did have a problem in the mid-1970's, not so much with quality as with the outward signs of quality. Those in charge of policy at the time decided that the "Shell" must be totally black and shiny - a blue-black stain was used, eliminating any reddish highlights. At the same time, the "Bruyere" finish was lightened from its original plum color. These two changes have dampened the pipe's reputation and may be the cause for some criticism I have heard; but, even with these pipes, the underlying quality is still there. Since that time, of course, there has been a return to the original "Bruyere" finish, and the new "Deep Shell" has reached our shores in limited quantity.
In comparing the Dunhill pipe of yesterday with that of today, what stands out is the continual evolvement of the pipe:
· The original mouthpiece has changed to "comfy" to "FAT", to machine-made, and then to present-day standard - gaining and losing lip thickness with each change.
· The briar has changed - age and the custom of reserving one type of briar for one finish have given way to gains in hardness, lightness, and better grain pattern.
· The sandblasted "Shell" has changed - losing a very deep blast and gaining uniformity; then, regaining its deep, if more uniform blast.
With these changes, the Dunhill standard of excellence has not diminished, at least in my practiced eye. Today's Dunhill pipe is not worse than yesterday's; it is not better than yesterday's; it is . . . different than yesterday's!
END

CHARATAN PIPES
CHARATAN: MADE BY HAND
A RUSSIAN WHO ARRIVES IN ENGLAND FROM AUSTRIA OPENS A WORKSHOP IN LONDON, HIRES EMPLOYEES, EXPANDS, ACQUIRES IMPORTANT CLIENTS, THEN LEAVES THE FIRM TO HIS SON WHO SUCCEEDS IN MAINTAINING THE FIRM?S EXCELLENT REPUTATION. FOLLOWING THE BOMBING, BUSINESS PICKS UP AGAIN THANKS TO A GERMAN FROM AMERICA WHO BUYS THE FIRM, ALTERS THE WAY IT IS RUN, AND THEN SELLS IT. THE NEW, PRESTIGIOUS OWNER TRANSFERS THE WHOLE ACTIVITY, SELLS OFF THE BRAND, BUT THEN LATER REPURCHASES IT. SEEN IN THIS LIGHT, THE HISTORY OF SUCH A GLORIOUS BRAND AS CHARATAN SEEMS TO BE SOMEWHAT REDUCED, BUT THIS IS A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF WHAT HAPPENS TO MOST FIRMS, WITH THEIR UPS AND DOWNS, CHANGES, GOOD AND BAD SURPRISES, URGENCIES AND EMERGENCIES, AND IN THE MEANTIME NEVER FORGETTING THE CLIENT?S NEEDS. IN THIS CASE THE CLIENT ONLY THINKS OF CHOOSING A FINE PIPE TO SMOKE, BUT WHEN AND IF THE CLIENT?S SMOKING EQUIPMENT TURNS INTO A COLLECTION, THIS IS NO LONGER ENOUGH. THE COLLECTION OF MODELS GRADUALLY INCREASES, AND THE CLIENT WISHES TO EXAMINE THEM IN MORE DETAIL, SEEKING TO DETERMINE DATE AND LOCATION OF PRODUCTION. HOWEVER, IN ORDER TO DO THIS THERE MUST BE SOME SORT OF REFERENCE THAT MAY BE CONSULTED, WHICH THE COMPANIES, UNFORTUNATELY, CANNOT ALWAYS SUPPLY. THIS IS BECAUSE THE ANCIENT ARCHIVES HAVE FREQUENTLY BEEN DESTROYED BY FIRES AND OTHER DISASTERS, OR ELSE HAVE BEEN NEGLECTED OR ABANDONED ALTOGETHER. HOWEVER, COLLECTORS ARE A TENACIOUS BREED: THEY BUILD UP NETWORKS, EXCHANGE INFORMATION, TURN INTO CATALOGUE HUNTERS, LIBRARY AND INTERNET BOOKWORMS, PIPE ARCHAEOLOGISTS WHO ARE ABLE TO DESCRIBE A MODEL THROUGH SUCH MINUTE DETAILS HARDLY PERCEPTIBLE TO MOST SMOKERS.
PIPE FIRMS AND COMPANIES HAVE ONLY REALLY REALIZED THE IMPORTANCE OF COLLECTORS IN THE LAST FEW DECADES, AND THUS TO MEET THEIR DEMANDS, AS WELL AS TO INCREASE PRODUCTION, THEY PERIODICALLY ISSUE A SERIES OF APPEALING, QUALITY PIPES. PRIOR TO THIS, APART FROM SOME EXCEPTIONS, THE CLIENTS BOUGHT PIPES TO SMOKE AND THE MANUFACTURERS PRODUCED AND SOLD THEM, MAKING FUNCTIONAL, LOGISTIC AND COMMERCIAL CHOICES BASED ON PRACTICAL REQUIREMENTS, NOT ON WHETHER THESE WOULD BECOME FUTURE COLLECTORS? ITEMS. NOWADAYS, THE WELL-KNOW DUNHILL CODE STAMPED ON THE PIPE WHICH ENABLES COLLECTORS TO DETERMINE PRECISELY THE PIPE?S YEAR OF MANUFACTURE IS A GODSEND FOR THEM, WHEREAS IN FACT THIS PRACTICE HAD BEEN INTRODUCED SOLELY SO THAT THE ANNUAL GUARANTEE COULD BE HONOURED. ON THE OTHER HAND, CHARATAN NEVER ADOPTED THIS PRACTICE FOR THE SIMPLE REASON THAT THE FIRM?S PIPES WOULD HAVE HAD A LIFETIME GUARANTEE, WHICH UNDENIABLY WAS FINE FOR THE CLIENTS, BUT LESS SO TODAY FOR CHARATAN COLLECTORS. NEVERTHELESS, OUR INDOMITABLE HEROES FORGE AHEAD, THEIR FAVOURITE PASTIME BEING UNEARTHING FLEETING, SLIPPERY CLUES.
THE COMPANIES? VICISSITUDES OBVIOUSLY CONTRIBUTED TO THE LOSS OF IMPORTANT INFORMATION, BUT FURTHER COMPLICATIONS OCCURRED DUE TO THE UNIQUE CLIMATE IN THE WORKSHOP. IN FACT, AT LEAST UNTIL LANE ARRIVED ON THE SCENE, ROUTINE PROCEDURE AMONG THE EXPERT PIPE MAKERS WAS FROWNED UPON. OF COURSE, STAMPS AND CODES WERE PART OF THE PROCESS, BUT WERE NOT THE MOST IMPORTANT PART AND WERE NOT ALWAYS PRECISE. WHEN LANE AND LATER DUNHILL SOUGHT TO IMPOSE SOME SORT OF CLASSIFICATION, THEY WERE SUCCESSFUL, BUT AT THE COST OF LOSING SOME OF THE MAGIC IN THE WORKSHOP. FURTHERMORE, IN ORDER TO ATTRACT MORE CLIENTS LANE HIMSELF INCREASED THE NUMBER OF MODELS AND GRADES TO THE EXTENT THAT TODAY COLLECTORS HAVE SERIOUS DIFFICULTIES IN GATHERING PRECISE DATA. MOREOVER, THERE ARE THOSE WHO DO NOT STOP AT DETERMINING A PERIOD OR MODEL, BUT COMPLICATE THEIR LIVES FURTHER BY SEEKING MODELS MADE BY PARTICULAR CRAFTSMEN. FROM PIPE TO PIPE, AND CLUE AFTER CLUE, THESE RESOLUTE SLEUTHS HUNT DOWN PIPES BY REUBEN CHARATAN, KEN BARNES, AND BARRY JONES. THROUGH DETAILS THAT ONLY THEIR EXPERT EYES CAN SEE THEY TRY TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PRODUCTS FROM MANSELL STREET, PRESCOT STREET, OR GROSVENOR STREET. THE TOP COLLECTORS ARE LIKE THAT: THE MORE DIFFICULT THE ENTERPRISE, THE BETTER.
HOWEVER, FOR THOSE WHO HAVE A ?NORMAL? COLLECTION OF CHARATAN PIPES, IT IS ESSENTIAL TO IDENTIFY SOME SOLID STEPPING STONES AMIDST THE QUAGMIRE OF MANUFACTURING INFORMATION, WHICH MAY BE PROVIDED BY EXAMINING THE ABOVE-MENTIONED COMPANY VICISSITUDES.
ERAS
THE LOGICAL MOVE WOULD BE TO SPLIT CHARATAN?S HISTORY INTO TWO ERAS, WITH 1962 AS THE DIVIDING YEAR, WHEN REUBEN?S WIDOW SOLD OFF THE BUSINESS TO HERMAN LANE. THUS, THE FIRST ERA DEALS WITH THE FAMILY, AND THE SECOND WITH THE FIRM?S SUBSEQUENT OWNERS. HOWEVER, THIS WOULD OMIT AN IMPORTANT STAGE IN CHARATAN?S HISTORY, THE TIME WHEN LANE RAN THE BUSINESS AND ALTHOUGH CHARATAN WAS NO LONGER RUN BY THE FAMILY, IT WAS STILL AUTONOMOUS, WHILE FOLLOWING DUNHILL?S PURCHASE THIS WAS NO LONGER POSSIBLE AND CHARATAN QUICKLY BECAME JUST A BRAND AMONGST OTHERS. THUS, WE SHOULD REALLY DIVIDE THE HISTORY INTO THREE ERAS: THE FAMILY, LANE, FROM DUNHILL TO DUNHILL. IN FUTURE A FOURTH ERA MAY BE ADDED: THE FAMILY, LANE, DIFFICULT YEARS AND RECOVERY UNDER DUNHILL, BUT THE LAST ERA IS REALLY TOO RECENT TO BE ABLE TO CONSIDER IT SEPARATELY.
BEFORE EXAMINING THE ERAS AND PERIODS IN MORE DETAIL IT SHOULD BE SAID THAT THE INFORMATION GATHERED FROM EXPERTS MAY NOT BE COMPLETE AND THEREFORE MAY BE INTEGRATED OR ALTERED WITH FUTURE FINDINGS. AS MENTIONED EARLIER, CHARATAN?S MANUFACTURING HISTORY IS RATHER COMPLEX.
FIRST ERA: THE FAMILY C. 1873 TO C. 1962
THE TWO DATES ARE TO BE CONSIDERED APPROXIMATE, AS ALTHOUGH IT IS KNOWN THAT THE SHOP COULD NOT HAVE BEEN OPENED AS EARLY AS 1863, IT IS ALSO TRUE THAT THE YEAR 1873 IS ALSO A ROUGH ESTIMATE. ON THE OTHER HAND, WE KNOW THAT 1962 IS THE YEAR IN WHICH HERMAN LANE BOUGHT THE BUSINESS, BUT IT IS ALSO KNOWN THAT AS EARLY AS 1955 OR EVEN THE EARLY 1950S HERMAN LANE WAS THE SOLE DISTRIBUTOR OF CHARATAN PIPES IN THE USA. HENCE, 1962 IS ALSO AN APPROXIMATE YEAR. THE FIRST ERA CAN BE FURTHER DIVIDED INTO TWO PERIODS:
FIRST PERIOD: FREDERICK CHARATAN C.1873 - 1910
MANUFACTURING WAS LIMITED AND A PIPE WAS MADE TO LAST A LIFETIME, SO FINDING A PIPE FROM THIS PERIOD IS EXTREMELY RARE. - FREDERICK DESIGNED A SIMPLE LOGO COMBINING THE INITIALS OF THE WORDS CHARATAN PIPES: A ?CP? WITH THE P SLIGHTLY LOWERED AND THE BOTTOM PART OF THE C LINKING WITH THE P. THE LETTERS ARE FINE.
- APART FROM SOME EXCEPTIONS THE PIPES ARE QUITE SMALL (CORRESPONDING TO DUNHILL GROUP 1 OR 2).- STEM: MAY BE IN AMBER OR HORN, AS WELL AS IN EBONITE, AND SADDLE SHAPED OR TAPERED. THE CP LOGO IS STAMPED ON IT (BUT MAY SOMETIMES BE ABSENT).
- SHANK: THE SHAPE CODE IS STAMPED ON IT TOGETHER WITH THE NOMENCLATURE ?CHARATAN'S MAKE LONDON ENGLAND" ARRANGED IN TWO LINES. THIS COULD SIMPLY REFER TO CHARATAN?S PRODUCTION, BUT SOME EXPERTS SUGGEST THAT ?MAKE? COULD IMPLY THAT THE MODEL IS ENTIRELY HAND-CRAFTED. A SUBTLETY THAT HERMAN LANE WOULD LATER MAKE CLEARER.
SECOND PERIOD: REUBEN CHARATAN 1910 ? C. 1962
- IN 1962 HERMAN LANE TOOK OVER THE BUSINESS FROM THE CHARATAN FAMILY, ALTHOUGH HE HAD ALREADY INFLUENCED PRODUCTION FROM THE 1950S.
- THE PIPES WERE MOSTLY LARGER THAN THE PREVIOUS ONES AND CORRESPONDED IN SIZE TO DUNHILL GROUP 5. THESE ARE SLIGHTLY LESS RARE, BUT STILL DIFFICULT TO FIND.
- STEM: USUALLY IN EBONITE, SADDLE SHAPED OR TAPERED, BEARING A FINE ?CP? STAMP. UNDERBOAR SYSTEM (SEE BELOW) USED WHEN NECESSARY.- SHANK: THE SHAPE CODE IS STAMPED ON IT TOGETHER WITH THE NOMENCLATURE ?CHARATAN'S MAKE LONDON ENGLAND? ARRANGED IN TWO LINES. FROM 1955 ONWARDS ON THE MODELS MARKETED FOR THE USA THERE IS ALSO A SERIF AND CIRCLED CAPITAL ?L? (BUT NOT ALL MODELS BEAR THIS) WHICH RESEMBLES THE POUND STERLING SYMBOL. THE ?L? IS FOR LANE, THE IMPORTER.
FROM 1958, LANE CHANGED THE NOMENCLATURE FOR MODELS MARKETED FOR THE US TO CLARIFY THE MESSAGE: ?MADE BY HAND?.- IN THIS PERIOD THE UNDERBOAR WAS INTRODUCED. ITS MANUFACTURING PERIOD RANGED BETWEEN 1920 AND C.1930. THIS MODEL WAS EQUIPPED WITH A DURALUMIN PLUNGER TRAP FITTED IN THE STEM, WHICH SERVED TO CLEAN THE RESIDUE MORE EASILY. THIS PARTICULAR MODEL BORE A SPECIAL STAMP ON THE STEM, AND ALSO HAD ITS OWN CATALOGUE.
WHILE HERMAN LANE IN THE LATTER PART OF THE FIRST ERA HAD A CERTAIN INFLUENCE ON PRODUCTION AND IMPORT TO THE US MARKET, THE BUSINESS REALLY TOOK OFF WHEN HE BOUGHT THE FIRM FROM THE CHARATAN FAMILY, AS HE CONTROLLED EVERYTHING NOW. HOWEVER, INITIALLY CHANGES WERE ALMOST IMPERCEPTIBLE, AND IT WAS ONLY WHEN BEN WADE CLOSED DOWN IN LEEDS AND ALL MACHINERY MOVED TO LONDON THAT LANE BROUGHT ABOUT SOME RADICAL CHANGES, PAYING PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO MARKETING. THIS IS WHY IT WOULD BE BETTER TO DIVIDE THIS ERA INTO TWO SEPARATE PERIODS. TO FACILITATE CLASSIFICATION EACH ERA WILL BE DIVIDED INTO VARIOUS PERIODS IN NUMERICAL SEQUENCE.
THIRD PERIOD: LANE PRIOR TO BEN WADE CLOSURE C.1962 ? 1965
THESE YEARS CAN BE CONSIDERED A KIND OF CONTINUATION OF THE PREVIOUS DECADE, AS WADE INCREASINGLY INFLUENCED CHARATAN PRODUCTION WITHOUT BETRAYING CHARATAN?S TRADITIONAL SPIRIT.
- AS BEFORE, THE MAXIMUM PIPE SIZE IS EQUIVALENT TO DUNHILL GROUP 5, AND THESE ARE GENERALLY LESS RARE.
- STEM: APART FROM SOME EXCEPTIONS, ALMOST ALWAYS IN EBONITE, FREQUENTLY SADDLE-SHAPED OR DOUBLE COMFORT SADDLE TYPE, BUT NEVER TAPERED. THE SADDLE STEM FITS INTO THE SHANK PERFECTLY AND HAS A FLATTENED PART. ON THE OTHER HAND, THE DOUBLE COMFORT FEATURES A SADDLE STEM WITH A STEPPED BIT, WHICH IS SHORTER. THIS TYPE OF STEM DATES FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE THIRD PERIOD, ALTHOUGH AGAIN THIS IS APPROXIMATE. INDEED, SOME EXPERTS EVEN DATE IT BACK TO THE BEGINNING OF WWII. THE STEM BEARS A THICKER CHARATAN LOGO (CP).
SHANK: IF THERE IS A DOUBLE COMFORT STEM, THE SHAPE CODE IS FOLLOWED BY ?DC?, IF NOT THE SHAPE CODE IS FOLLOWED BY AN ?X?. PIPES MADE FOR THE AMERICAN MARKET BEAR THE LANE LOGO WITH A SERIF, CIRCLED CAPITAL L. THE STAMP ?CHARATAN'S MAKE - LONDON ENGLAND? IS ARRANGED IN TWO LINES, AND ON SOME MODELS THE SHANK BEARS THE SCRIPT: ?MADE BY HAND?.
FOURTH PERIOD: LANE FOLLOWING BEN WADE CLOSURE 1965 - 1976
THE ACQUISITION OF THE BEN WADE MACHINERY BROUGHT ABOUT SOME SUBSTANTIAL CHANGES TO MANUFACTURING. SOME ?SECONDS? PIPES STILL BORE THE CHARATAN LOGO, WHILE OTHERS BORE THE BEN WADE BRAND LOGO. SOME PIPES WERE ALSO COMMISSIONED TO WILLMER, THE BRITISH MANUFACTURERS AND PREBEN HOLM, THE DANISH WORKSHOP. ALL THESE CIRCUMSTANCES AND OTHERS THAT WE WILL ADD CREATED CONSIDERABLE CONFUSION AND INCONSISTENCIES IN PRODUCTION, AND THE DISTINCTIVE PRECISION OF THE PREVIOUS ?BRITISH STYLE? WAS A THING OF THE PAST.
- FEATURES ARE SIMILAR TO PIPES FROM THE PREVIOUS PERIOD, BUT THERE ARE SOME CHANGES:- SHANK: THE NOMENCLATURE ?CHARATAN'S MAKE - LONDON ENGLAND? IS STAMPED IN THREE LINES. PIPES STAMPED WITH ?MADE BY HAND IN CITY OF LONDON? ARRANGED IN THREE LINES WAS ADOPTED BRIEFLY IN 1965, FOR ABOUT SIX MONTHS. THE SAME NOMENCLATURE WAS USED AFTER THAT DATE, STILL ARRANGED IN THREE LINES, BUT INSTEAD OF USING CAPITAL LETTERS FOR THE FIRST PART, THE PIPES NOW BORE LOWER CASE SCRIPT: ?MADE BY HAND - IN - CITY OF LONDON?.
THIRD ERA: FROM DUNHILL TO DUNHILL 1977 - PRESENT
- DUNHILL ACQUIRED THE CHARATAN BRAND IN 1976, AND FOR THE FIRST SIX MONTHS PRODUCTION WENT ON AS BEFORE. REAL CHANGES STARTED TO BE MADE IN 1977, INCREASING RADICALLY AS TIME WENT BY, WHICH CULMINATED IN THE CLOSURE OF THE LONDON WORKSHOP AND TRANSFER OF ALL MANUFACTURING TO WALTHAMSTOW IN 1982. THIS DATE MARKS THE TRANSITION FROM THE FIRST TO THE SECOND DUNHILL PERIOD. DUNHILL THEN SOLD THE CHARATAN BRAND TO JAMES B. RUSSEL AND THE THIRD DUNHILL PERIOD IS CHARACTERIZED BY DUNHILL?S REACQUISITION OF THE CHARATAN BRAND.
FIFTH PERIOD: DUNHILL I 1977 -1981
FEATURES ARE SIMILAR TO PREVIOUS PRODUCTION, EXCEPT FOR SOME DIFFERENCES. - STEM: UP TO THE END OF 1980 THE CP LOGO IS THE SAME, WITH THE C PENETRATING THE P, BUT AFTER THAT THE C AND P ARE SEPARATE. - SHANK: ALTHOUGH LANE SOLD OFF THE BRAND, THE ?L? FOR LANE IS STILL STAMPED ON PIPES IMPORTED BY HIM FOR THE AMERICAN MARKET. SOME EXPERTS SUGGEST THAT THE ?L? WAS PRESENT ONLY UNTIL 1980, BUT THIS HAS TO BE VERIFIED. IN ANY CASE, THE NOMENCLATURE IN CURSIVE SCRIPT ?MADE BY HAND IN CITY OF LONDON? IN THREE LINES WAS PRESENT UNTIL 1979 AND SUBSEQUENTLY ?CHARATAN'S MAKE LONDON ENGLAND? WAS DISPLAYED IN THREE LINES. AN X APPEARS AFTER THE SHAPE CODE FOR A SADDLE STEM (RARE) OR ?DC? FOR DOUBLE COMFORT. IT IS IMPORTANT TO CHECK THAT THE ?DC? IS NOT OUT OF LINE WITH THE SHAPE CODE, AS THIS MEANS THAT THE PIPE IS FROM AN EARLIER PRODUCTION AND THE DC WAS ADDED LATER ON.
- SHANK: SOME PIPES PRODUCED AROUND 1978 BEAR THE STAMP ?CHIPPENDALE?, WHICH WERE MANUFACTURED BY CHARATAN (DUNHILL) FOR TINDERBOX, AN AMERICAN CHAIN STORE SELLING SMOKING EQUIPMENT. - STEM: CHIPPENDALE PIPES MANUFACTURED BY CHARATAN BELONG TO THE BELVEDERE SERIES AND BEAR THE STAMP ?CD? INSTEAD OF ?CP?.
SIXTH PERIOD: DUNHILL II 1982 -1987
SPECIALIST NEWSPAPERS OF THE TIME SADLY ANNOUNCED THE CLOSURE OF THE GROSVENOR STREET FACTORY. ALTHOUGHTHIS DOES NOT MARK A DIVISION BETWEEN TWO PERIODS IN PRODUCTION, NEVERTHELESS IT WAS A BREAKING POINT OF NO RETURN. FROM THAT TIME ON RADICAL CHANGES WERE MADE, EVEN IF THEY DID NOT HAVE A GREAT IMPACT ON THE FEATURES BEING EXAMINED. HERE ARE SOME OF THE DIFFERENCES:
- STEM: THE CP LOGO IS THE NEW ONE, THE TWO LETTERS BEING SEPARATE. - SHANK: THE STAMP ?CHARATAN'S MAKE LONDON ENGLAND? IS STILL DISPLAYED IN THREE LINES. SOME EXPERTS BELIEVE THAT THIS PERIOD MARKS THE ABSENCE OF THE ?L? FOR LANE, BUT LANE CONTINUED TO IMPORT UNTIL THE CHARATAN BRAND WAS SOLD TO RUSSELL IN 1987.
SEVENTH PERIOD: JAMES.B. RUSSEL 1988 - 2001
PRODUCTION WAS MOVED TO FRANCE. - STEM: DOUBLE COMFORT. IN ADDITION TO THE NEW, CLEARLY STAMPED CP, THERE IS THE STAMP ?FRANCE".- SHANK: THE STAMP ?CHARATAN OF LONDON? (?OF LONDON? IN CURSIVE SCRIPT) TO WHICH IS ADDED ?FRANCE? OCCASIONALLY. THE ?L? FOR LANE IS NO LONGER PRESENT. - TO BE MORE PRECISE: THE ?FRANCE? STAMP IS NOT ALWAYS PRESENT ON THE PIPES, AND WHEN IT IS, IT MAY BE DISPLAYED ON THE STEM OR SHANK.
EIGHTH PERIOD: DUNHILL III 2002 - PRESENT
THERE IS NOT MUCH TO SAY ON THE HISTORY OF THESE NEW PIPES FOR THE MOMENT. CATALOGUES CAN BE CONSULTED ONLINE TO VIEW THE MODELS, AND PIPES CAN BE BOUGHT. HOWEVER, ONE FEATURE IS THE RETURN OF THE C THAT PENETRATES THE P ONCE AGAIN, DISPLAYED ON THE STEM, AND ON THE SHANK THE SCRIPT ?CHARATAN'S MAKE LONDON ENGLAND?. CHARATAN IS BACK.
SUMMARY
WE SHALL NOW CONTINUE OUR STUDY FROM ANOTHER POINT OF VIEW, BY EXAMINING HOW THE STEM AND SHANK HAVE EVOLVED OVER TIME:
STEM: ORIGINALLY IN EBONITE, AMBER OR HORN. UP TO THE SECOND ERA IT WAS ONLY IN EBONITE, APART FROM A FEW EXCEPTIONS. AS FOR ITS SHAPE, IN THE FIRST AND SECOND ERA IT WAS TAPERED OR SADDLE SHAPED. THE DOUBLE COMFORT WAS INTRODUCED AT THE END OF THE SECOND ERA AND WAS SOON ADOPTED IN MOST CHARATAN PIPES. THE TAPERED STEM WAS ABSENT, APART FROM SOME RARE CASES OF SPECIAL SERIES. THE SADDLE STEM WAS FOR A LONG TIME PRESENT IN SOME MODELS, BUT LATER DISAPPEARED. THE STEM BORE THE CP LOGO, WHERE THE C PENETRATED THE P UNTIL ABOUT 1980, AND THEN REAPPEARED IN THE EIGHTH PERIOD. IN THE FIRST TWO ERAS THE LOGO?S SCRIPT WAS FINE, BUT LATER BECAME THICKER. IN THE SEVENTH PERIOD THE SCRIPT WAS MORE MARKED. HOWEVER, THERE ARE QUITE A FEW VARIATONS ON THIS AND EXPERTS HAVE TO EXAMINE ALL THE DETAILS, DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT STAMPS USED IN CERTAIN ERAS (RATHER LIKE STAMP COLLECTERS). WE WILL NOT GO INTO THIS NOW.
SHANK: THE SIZE AND SHAPE OF THE SCRIPTS STAMPED ON THEM VARY MORE OR LESS ACCORDING TO THE ERA AND EVEN DURING ONE SINGLE ERA. THE NOMENCLATURE ?MADE BY HAND? WAS INTRODUCED DURING THE THIRD PERIOD OF THE SECOND ERA, BUT NOT ALL PIPES BORE THIS SCRIPT. FROM THE THIRD PERIOD ON, THE SHAPE CODE WAS FOLLOWED BY AN X ON SADDLE STEMS AND RARE TAPERED STEMS, AND ?DC? IN THE CASE OF DOUBLE COMFORT STEMS. THE ?L? FOR LANE APPEARED FOR THE FIRST TIME WHEN PIPES WERE MADE EXCLUSIVELY FOR THE AMERICAN MARKET, AND HELP US TO IDENTIFY THE PERIOD. HOWEVER, THE L WAS ABSENT SOMETIMES ON PIPES THAT WERE EXPORTED TO AMERICA, WHILE PIPES FOR THE EUROPEAN MARKET SOMETIMES BORE THIS STAMP. WHEN LANE SOLD THE FIRM TO DUNHILL, HE STILL CONTINUED TO IMPORT TO THE USA AND SO THE L REMAINED ON THE PIPES. HOWEVER, ONCE DUNHILL SOLD THE FIRM TO JAMES B. RUSSELL, THE L DISAPPEARED.
QUALITY GRADES
THE STEM DID NOT ONLY DISPLAY THE STAMPS MENTIONED ABOVE. ANOTHER STAMP THAT CAN HELP DATING IS THE ONE REFERRING TO THE QUALITY OF THE PIPE. UNTIL HERMAN LANE ARRIVED ON THE SCENE THERE WERE FOUR QUALITY GRADES. STARTING WITH THE LOWEST: BELVEDERE, EXECUTIVE, SELECTED, AND SUPREME. LANE WENT ON TO ADD HIGHER GRADES FROM TIME TO TIME: SUPREME S, SUPREME S100, S150, S200, S250, S300, CORONATION, ROYAL ACHIEVEMENT, CROWN ACHIEVEMENT, AND SUMMA CUM LAUDE; THESE LAST THREE ARE EXTREMELY RARE AND ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE TO FIND. HE ALSO INVENTED OTHER, DIFFERENT GRADES, EVEN CHANGING THE PREVIOUS PIPE CLASSIFICATION STANDARDS. WE WILL NOT GO INTO DETAIL HERE, BUT IT MEANS THAT IF WE FIND AN S100 OR CORONATION THE PIPE WAS MANUFACTURED FOLLOWING HERMAN LANE?S ACQUISITION. IN PARTICULAR, THE FH MARK, OR FREEHAND PIPE WAS COMMISSIONED TO THE FAMOUS DANISH CRAFTSMAN, PREBEN HOLM.
WE SHALL LEAVE FURTHER DETAILED ANALYSES AND DATING TO THE EXPERTS, AN ENTERPRISE THAT HAS ONLY JUST BEGUN, BUT WHICH IS AT THE SAME TIME SURPRISING AND HIGHLY SATISFYING FOR THOSE WHO ARE PREPARED TO RISE TO THE CHALLENGE.
_MILAN, JULY 2014 _

HOW TO PACK & LIGHT A PIPE
LEARNING HOW TO SMOKE A TOBACCO PIPE ISN'T AS COMPLICATED AS IT SEEMS. The number one complaint of _new pipe smokers_ seems to be that they do not know how to correctly 'pack' their pipe, resulting in either _dottle_ left over at the end of the smoke, or a hot smoke and the dreaded _tongue bite_, or a pipe that is hard to draw on. Here is compiled a step by step outline to the correct way to pack a pipe for maximum enjoyment. Packing and lighting a pipe, much like _smoking a pipe,_ is an artform, and this technique may take some time to master, but once you have it down pat, one of the major stumbling blocks to pipe smoking bliss will have been removed.
MATERIALS NEEDED:
* Pipe
* Tobacco
* Something to tamp the tobacco with
* Something to ignite the tobacco with
* Pipe cleaners
PACKING PROCEDURE:
THERE ARE MANY METHODS OF PACKING A PIPE WITH TOBACCO. The method listed below works well for many folks and many _different kinds of tobacco._ It is, by no means, the only method of packing a pipe and experimentation is the key to finding a process that works well for you.
(1) FIRST, MAKE SURE YOUR PIPE IS FREE FROM OBSTRUCTIONS AND LEFT OVER ASH FROM PREVIOUS SMOKES. Run a pipe cleaner through the stem, dump out any dottle, and gently blow through the stem to expel any leftover ash. It is probably best to do this over a trashcan, large ashtray, or other such receptacle, pointing the bowl of the pipe upside down to avoid spewing dottle and ash into your own face.
(2) NEXT, PREPARE THE TOBACCO FOR SMOKING. Remove a small amount of tobacco from your tin/pouch/etc and lay it out on a flat surface. Gently pick apart any clumps in the tobacco, and make note of the moisture content of the tobacco. If it is too moist, you may want to let it sit out for a few minutes to dry out a bit. Go make yourself a cup of tea, pull an espresso, or open some mail. When you come back, it should have dried just a bit and be a little easier to deal with.
(3) LIGHTLY FILL THE YOUR PIPE WITH TOBACCO. Holding your pipe, trickle strands of tobacco into the bowl of the pipe until it is filled to the top. resist the urge to push the tobacco down with your thumb half-way through this operation. Do not pinch the loose tobacco while doing this, as you will create more of the clumps you just took time to remedy.
(4) NOW, TAKE YOUR TAMPER/PIPE-NAIL/ETC AND GENTLY COMPRESS THE TOBACCO. For bowls with straight sides, you should tamp gently until the tobacco half fills the bowl. For pipes with tapered bowls, aim for more like two thirds full. The tobacco in the bowl should have a very springy, almost soft consistency.
(5) PUT THE PIPE TO YOUR LIPS AND TAKE A TEST DRAW. If there is any resistance, dump out the tobacco and start over.
(6) ONCE AGAIN, LIGHTLY FILL THE BOWL OF YOUR PIPE. Trickle loose strands of tobacco into the bowl of your pipe until it is once again full, perhaps even a tad over-full.
(7) AGAIN, TAMP THE TOBACCO DOWN GENTLY WITH YOUR TAMP. For straight sided bowls, the pipe should now be three quarters full. For tapered bowls, the pipe should now be five eighths or so full. You will probably find that to achieve this level of tobacco, you have to tamp with slightly more force than the first time. The tobacco in the bowl should feel springy.
(8) PUT THE PIPE TO YOUR LIPS AND TAKE A TEST DRAW. There may be tiny amount of resistance this time, but if you have any trouble drawing on the pipe, dump out the tobacco and start over.
(9) TRICKLE A BIT MORE TOBACCO INTO THE PIPE. Fill the pipe until a small mound of tobacco protrudes above the rim of the bowl, looking as if it needs a haircut. Return any left-over tobacco to its container for future use.
(10) USING YOUR TAMP AGAIN, PACK THIS TOBACCO DOWN UNTIL IT IS EVEN WITH THE TOP OF THE BOWL. This will take a bit more pressure than the first two tamping operations, but take care not to overdo it. The tobacco should still feel springy, only slightly less so than on the second tamp.
(11) PUT THE PIPE TO YOUR LIPS AND TAKE ANOTHER TEST DRAW. The resistance should be minimal, like sucking on a straw. If there is any more than this, dump out the tobacco and start over.
Now, if all of the above steps have been successfully completed, your pipe is properly packed and ready to be lit and smoked.
LIGHTING PROCEDURE:
LIGHTING A PIPE _SEEMS_ TO BE A VERY STRAIGHTFORWARD OPERATION. You apply open flame, whether from a match, pipe lighter or other such contrivance and puff on the pipe until it is lit. Well, to get maximum enjoyment out of your pipe, and to minimize the need for mid-smoke relights, it is important to pay attention to your technique here, as with any other aspect of smoking. Here are a couple of easy steps to ensure a nicely lit pipe.
(1) FIRST COMES THE _'CHARRING' LIGHT_ (ALSO CALLED THE _'FALSE' LIGHT_). The purpose of which is to expel any extra moisture from the tobacco and prepare a nice even bed for the 'true' light. To achieve this, light your match or lighter and apply it to the tobacco, moving it in a circular motion around the entire surface of the tobacco. While doing this, take a series of shallow puffs on the pipe. It may be that the tobacco swells up in a spot or two and seems to unravel. That is the purpose of the _charring light_, to balance out the tobacco moisture and density.
(2) ALLOW THIS LIGHT TO GO OUT AND TAMP THE TOBACCO BACK DOWN EVEN WITH THE TOP OF THE BOWL. You may find it useful to twist or spin your tamp in a circular motion while doing this. This is the point where many pipe smokers ruin a good packing job by tamping too hard. You should use a very light touch, wanting only to return the tobacco to the level it was before the charring light.
(3) RELIGHT YOUR MATCH OF LIGHTER AND APPLY IT TO THE TOBACCO, MOVING IT IN A CIRCULAR MOTION AROUND THE ENTIRE SURFACE OF THE TOBACCO. While doing this, take a series of shallow puffs on the pipe. This time the tobacco should not unravel and puff up as it did before. Extinguish your source of fire, sit back, relax and _enjoy your pipe._
Hopefully, by following these instructions, you have successfully lit your pipe and are enjoying it. Here are a couple more tips to consider:
* It takes time and practice to master this technique, but you should see steady improvement in your form and in the ease with which you can pack your pipe as you progress. It is not uncommon for it to take six months for this technique to become second nature.
* Don't worry too much about relights. Relighting your pipe is a fact of life, and only rarely, if at all, will you have a smoke where you do not have to relight at least once. You will probably find that as your smoking progresses, you will relight less and less frequently.

LONDON SMOKE
LOEWE, ORLIK, COMOY, BBB......
The largest and most innovative building in the world measured 563 metres long by 124 metres wide, and the height of the central transept was 33 metres. The total floor space, which covered the ground floor and galleries occupied around 9 hectares, while the display area covered over 13 kilometres. Built with astonishing speed in prefabricated glass and iron on the edge of Hyde Park, the Crystal Palace was the epitome of modern technology and design, a worthy construction to house the _Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations_, the very first World?s Fair, designed to showcase modern industrial technology, but above all to show Great Britain?s superiority at the height of its colonial and industrial power. From 1st May to 11th October, 1851, over six million people visited the monumental green house viewing and admiring manufacturing exhibits from all over the world. Half of the building west of the transept was assigned to exhibitors from Great Britain and its colonies, and strolling among the vast upper galleries amongst all sorts of objects and machinery, you could also come across a few pipes.
In the _South Central Gallery_, class 23 - _Works in precious metals, jewellery. etc_, a Londoner, John Inderwick displayed a silver and gold mounted ornately carved Meerschaum featuring the death of Nelson. The patented tube was designed so as to facilitate smoking. In the _North Transept Gallery_ overlooking the central transept in class 25 - _China, porcelain, earthenware etc_, William Southorn & Co. di Broseley displayed specially treated clay pipes that increased porosity. The glazing technique was also innovative and the pipes had green mouthpieces. While still in the _North Transept Gallery _an even more interesting display was in class 29 - _Miscellaneous manufactures and small wares_, which featured two London manufacturers displaying pipes: John Yerbury with his _patent diaphragm pipe_, a recent patent by William Staite with a diaphragm system to block tobacco moisture made of extremely hard stoneware that was characteristic of the company that produced it, Josiah Wedgwood and Sons. Benjamin Barling & Sons displayed eight meerschaums mounted in silver and other materials. Two were simple designs, while the others were exquisitely carved featuring mostly animals. They received recognition for this display and won the Exhibition?s much sought-after official medallion.
Crystal Palace
There were quite a few pipes on show east of the transept that was assigned to other countries: exotic, dry or water pipes; Turkish, Greek and French clay pipes made by Dumeril and Fiolet , two renowned manufacturers. The Austrians and Germans exhibited pipes with porcelain bowls and wooden stems, as well as pipes made of wood and other materials. At least thirteen Austrian exhibitors, and some from Germany displayed pipes and cigar holders in refined meerschaum. Two manufacturers from Ruhla, in Thuringia exhibited a vast array of pipes.
London in 1851 had a population of 3,300,000, many of whom were immigrants from countries that were part of Britain?s Empire or else from the poorest European states, making London an immense metropolis for that time and an excellent market for any kind of product. In the mid-nineteenth century pipes were quite popular in cities, thanks to a new invention, the match, which replaced the tinder box and was far easier to use. Nevertheless, most Londoners were used to clay pipes, and virtually ignored wooden or porcelain pipes. As for pipes made of meerschaum for refined and wealthy clients, most hardly knew anything about this substance. This is why the Exhibition catalogue provides a detailed explanation of the material?s features and uses under the name of John Inderwick. Thus, it was in fact the _Great Exhibition_ that launched sea foam, although it had already been circulating in the form of pipes as early as 1815.
In 1815 (or a little earlier) Benjamin Barling, the third generation of a family of silversmiths, established his firm. Amongst other things the firm imported meerschaum pipes and finished them in silver. John Inderwick, also present at the Exhibition, had begun his career in the late eighteenth century with silver and his shop was long renowned for his prestigious meerschaum pipes. Adolph Franchau, a German,settled in London in 1847 and began to import meerschaum pipes and tobacco. After the Exhibition other silversmiths and pipe makers were to follow, such as Henry Perkins from the 1850s onwards, Emil Loewe, a Frenchman who opened a pipe shop and workshop in 1856, may have also dealt in meerschaum and William Astley, who founded the famous tobacco shop, Astley?s in 1862, also sold meerschaum pipes.
It is unclear whether for these early models the meerschaum pipes were manufactured on the premises, or else they were imported and then finished. The latter seems to be the most likely answer. However, in the 1880s the situation started to change. Chronicles of the time record meerschaum carvers who had been ?stolen? from Vienna to go and work in London. Moreover, Frederick and George Kapp from Nuremberg arrived in London in 1865 and the following year were already registered as meerschaum pipe manufacturers. In the early 1870s a young Russian who was already an expert in meerschaum, Frederick Charatan, established his business in Londonand around1875 Joseph B Brown from Kingston upon Hull founded JBB, which offered silver mounted meerschaum pipes. By 1876 there were thirty meerschaum pipe makers and importers working in London, and more were to follow. However, this material had reached its peak of popularity and following another ten years it would gradually lose its appeal. It is likely that one of the main reasons for this was the fact that a new exciting and unexpected material for pipes was making a name for itself.
There are various opinions on how and when the _Erica Arborea_ root was introduced into the world of pipes, but it certainly was unknown in Great Britain at the time of the _Exhibition_. When Emil Loewe, a Frenchman, established his company in 1856, he may not have displayed his briar root pipes initially alongside his meerschaum models, but it is generally believed that it was he who first introduced the new material in London and others followed him from 1861 onwards: Louis Blumfeld, former employee of Adolph Frankau that had taken over management following Frankau?s death; Benjamin Wade, founder (1860) of the Ben Wadecompany in Leeds; William Astley, of the famous tobacco shop; Charles Oppenheimer, in 1860 founder of a large import-export company; Samuel Weingott, tobacco seller in Fleet Street in 1865 and the two Kapp brothers. Some just imported or dealt in briar root pipes, whereas others (Loewe, Blonfeld-Frankau, Wade, Weingott and Kapp) almost immediately began to manufacture their own briar pipes in their workshops. However, there were others who were entering this exciting market.
By 1865 the Barling companyhad also adopted briar rootand mounted exquisite silver fitments on briar pipes as well as meerschaums. The same went for JBB and Charatan. In 1874 Frederick Kapp moved to Dublin to later establish Kapp and Peterson while his brother remained in London and ran the business for another decade. In 1876 Louis Blumfeld, owner of the Frankau company, realising how briar pipes were becoming increasingly popular decided to create the BBB brand, _Blumfeld?s Best Briars_, which subsequently would change to _British Best Briars._
In 1879 Henry Comoy, a Frenchman from Saint-Claude (the ?capital? of the emerging briar industry) arrived in London. His family had been manufacturing pipes since 1825, so they were already familiar with this new material and Henry immediately started creating briar pipes when he opened his first workshop. In 1883 the tobacco seller Weingott established a a company for briar pipe manufacturing, called S. Weingott & Son, and in 1888 William Henry Carrington founded his firm in Manchester producing meerschaums and briar pipes bearing the WHC brand. In 1890 Thomas Martin founded his first workshop in the village of Blakesley producing the Blakemar brand, following eight years of apprenticeship in various companies, including Loewe. In 1898 Frankau opened a factory in Homerton that would last till the 1980s. One year later in London Louis Orlik established his company and John Louis Duncan established Duncan Briars.
At the turn of the century English pipe makers were increasingly competitive and numerous, perhaps too numerous considering that the market was in decline due to the introduction of cigarettes and cigars. However, in difficult situations the best and strongest competitors generally emerge. In 1900 the Oppenheimer company bought two pipe manufacturers in Saint-Claude in France and in 1902 it purchased the GBD company, which had been founded in Paris in 1850. Subsequently, in 1906 a large factory was established in Saint-Claude housing the two manufactures previously acquired. In the same year Barling began to produce some briar pipes as part of their output and in 1909 the company became independent producers of their collections. In 1907 Alfred Dunhill opened his shop on Duke Street and in 1910 began to produce pipes independently drawing on the experience and expertise acquired from Joel Sasieni, one of the best, highly skilled craftsmen who had been ?stolen? from Charatan. In 1908 Edmund Hardcastle established his company and then WWI broke out.
It seemed that after the war in peacetime pipes were still in demand. Thus, in 1919 the Davies & Huybrecht company, better known as London Castle, was established, producing highly refined pipes sold in only one shop in London. In the same year, Joel Sasieni, after having worked for Charatan and Dunhill, chose to become independent and founded his own personal company.
However, the 1920s were difficult times for pipes and many manufacturers were aware of this. Indeed, already in 1917 the Perkins company had been acquired by the Adler family associated with Oppenheimer, whose GBD brandwas produced both in London and Paris. It was Oppenheimer that incorporated both Frankau, under the BBB brand and Loewe in 1920, and also began to participate in Comoy?s equity. Indeed, the rise of Oppenheimer was rather turbulent, and in order to avoid confusion created a holding company, Cadogan Investments Ltd, which controlled all the other pipe companies. The company was named after Cadogan Square in London where the offices were based. In 1929 Comoy approached Cadogan but was not yet acquired and meanwhile JBB and Weingott were sold by the family and subsequently changed hands several times, damaging the brand in the process. On the other hand, the companies that remained under Cadogan continued to be successful, as the holding allowed the companies complete freedom of action. Dunhill was also active, in1922 founding the Parker company, and in 1935 began to acquire Hardcastle which would be completed in 1946.
Cigarettes became popular following WWII, making life for pipe companies difficult, even if pipe manufacturing continued as before. Thus, in 1960 the Barling family gave up and sold the company off to the Imperial Tobacco Company. This was the beginning of a difficult period for the brand, which would only flourish again in 1975 thanks to the new owner. Likewise, in 1962 the Charatan family also sold their company to a German-American company, Herman Lane, which also acquired Ben Wade in the same year. Following another change of hands Charatanwas acquired by Dunhill in 1976, which sold the brand and then re-acquired it in 2002. Although Sasieni had been bearing up well under pressure, the family sold it in 1979, and its tradition of fine quality pipes continued until it was sold in 1986. In 1980 Cadogan finally acquired Comoy, Orlik and Weingott. Company policy had to change with the times and no longer were the subsidiary companies independent. Now compamies were merged and some brands had to be sacrificed in the process, such as Weingott, and Carrington/ WHC of Manchester that closed down in 1988.
These were no longer times for general pipe smokers and pipes became part of a niche market for discerning and demanding clients. Under the umbrella of great names and holdings glorious brands still continued their business. Others, antique but orphans, were saved and went back into business, while yet other pipe makers worked independently.
In 1976, when the glorious factory was sold to Dunhill, a few master craftsmen from Charatandecided to leave to establish their own business, such as Barry Jones and Kenneth Barnes, who founded a company at Tilshead called the James Upshall company, which was then sold in 1996. In the early 1980s Ashton pipes were introduced, the owner being William Ashton Taylor who had worked for a long time for Dunhill. In 1995 Duncan Briars was bought by Ben Wilson, John Duncan?s brother-in-law; in 1998 Wilson himself bought the Ben Wade brand from Dunhill and re-launched it. In 1999 London Castle closed, as well as the prestigious Inderwick and Astley's.
The twenty-first century will be full of surprises in the field of British pipes, hopefully positive ones. In the meantime collectors vie for antique and vintage models, such as Dunhill and Charatan, as well as for Barling, Sasieni, Comoy, BBB, Ben Wade, Loewe, and Orlik. There are also those who seek to piece together the almost forgotten past of no less interesting minor brands, which have also played a role in pipe history.

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