1878 Rare Tinted Litho. - Sand Martins at Sandy Station, Bedford - George Rowley
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An original tinted lithograph which was an illustration to "Ornithological Miscellany" compiled by George Dawson Rowley (see below) and published in London in 1878.
This image is entitled "The Home of the Sand Martin (Cotyle riparia). Sandy Station, Great Northern Railway. 27 June 1877". Sandy is a small market town in Bedfordshire, England noted for it's extensive sand hills - see below
The artist was the famous John Gerrard Keulemans - see below - and the printer M.& N. Hanhart, noted for their unique tonal values - see below
Good condition - see scan.
Page size 12.5 x 10 inches - image size 9.5 x 7 inches
This is a rare and original antique print guaranteed to be of the period described and not a later reproduction
* Published: 28 November 1878
_THE LATE MR. G. DAWSON ROWLEY_
_Nature_volume 19, page84 (1878) | Download Citation
IT is with sincere regret that we have to announce the death, on the 21st inst., at his house in Brighton, of Mr. George Dawson Rowley, the projector of, and principal contributor to, the _Ornithological Miscellany_, which he published at his own very considerable cost, and author of several papers on ornithological and archæological subjects. Educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1846, he was the companion, both at school and at the University, of the late John Wolley, whose early passion for natural history he shared. In Mr. Rowley, however, the taste for a time gave way to antiquarian studies, and did not return, at any rate very strongly, until some years afterwards, when he had married and was settled at Brighton, where, notwithstanding the _dictum_ of Mr. Ruskin that “no English gentleman has ever thought of birds except as flying targets or flavorous dishes,” he became, so far as the opportunities of the place allowed, a very watchful observer of all that was passing in the feathered world, while in the spring he yearly repaired to his father's estate at St. Neot's in Huntingdonshire, the better to study the habits of birds in the breeding-season. He also began to form a collection of ornithological specimens of singular value, sparing no cost or trouble in the acquisition of objects of rarity or peculiar interest, and the treasures thus amassed finally became very numerous. The design of his _Ornithological Miscellany_ seems to have chiefly been to illustrate this “Rarity Chamber”— for so, after the example set by old Rumphius, it might well be called—a considerable number if not most of the specimens therein figured or described being his own possessions. Yet he willingly accorded room in its pages to worthy contributors, among whom may be mentioned Mr. Dresser, Dr. Finsch, Messrs. Salrin, Sclater, Seebohm and Sharpe, and Lord Tweed-dale, and his printing a translation of Prjevalsky's important work on the birds of Turkestan, published in Russian, with copies of the plates, was a real boon to those ignorant of that language. Besides this lie often wandered into the by-ways of ornithology, which frequently possess a curious kind of interest, and he gave views of many places remarkable for the birds which frequent them. Never did the contents of a work better justify its title, for anything more miscellaneous than they are cannot well be imagined. Failing health, as he himself only a few months ago stated in his concluding remarks, brought it to an end far sooner than he had intended. Setting aside the scientific value of some of the papers, the beautiful plates by which nearly all are illustrated make its cessation a loss to ornithologists; and those who knew that Mr. Rowley had for a long time been gathering information bearing on the history of the extinct Gare-fowl (_Alca tmpennis_) had hoped that some result of his labours in this respect would one day make its appearance. But this was not to be. More than a year ago a violent hæmorrhage of the lungs gave warning of serious danger, and the attack was only too quickly followed by others of a like nature, under which he sank, in his fifty-seventh year, dying, by a singular coincidence, on the very same day as his father, who had long been an invalid.
JOHN GERRARD KEULEMANS
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John Gerrard Keulemans
J. G. Keulemans
8 June 1842
29 March 1912 (aged 69)
Natural history illustration
JOHANNES GERARDUS KEULEMANS (J. G. KEULEMANS) (8 June 1842 – 29 March 1912) was a Dutch bird illustrator. For most of his life he lived and worked in England, illustrating a large number of the best-known ornithology books of the nineteenth century.
* 2.1_Onze vogels in huis en tuin_ (Our birds in home and garden)
* 3Interest in spiritualism
* 4List of major works to which Keulemans contributed
* 5See also
* 8Further reading
* 9External links
Keulemans was born in Rotterdam. As a young man he collected animal specimens for museums such as the Natural History Museum in Leiden, whose director, Hermann Schlegel, encouraged Keulemans and sent him on the 1864 expedition to West Africa. In 1869, he was persuaded by Richard Bowdler Sharpe to illustrate his _Monograph of the Alcedinidae, or Family of Kingfishers_ (1868-1871) and to move to England, where he lived for the rest of his life. He was married twice, and had eight children by his first wife and seven children by his second wife. Only nine of his children reached adulthood. He also wrote topics on spirituality, and claimed he had a premonition at the moment of death of one of his sons. He died in Ilford, Essex (now part of Greater London) and is buried in Buckingham Road cemetery, Ilford, in an unmarked grave.
Keulemans regularly provided illustrations for _The Ibis_ and _The Proceedings of the Zoological Society_. He illustrated many important bird books, including Buller's _A History of the Birds of New Zealand_(1873, 1888), William Vincent Legge's _History of the Birds of Ceylon_ (1880), Daniel Giraud Elliot's _Monograph of the Bucerotidae_ (hornbills) (1887–1892), Henry Seebohm's _Monograph of the Turdidae (thrushes)_ (1902), Osbert Salvin's _Biologia Centrali-Americana_ (1879–1904), Edgar Leopold Layard's _Birds of South Africa_ (1887) and Henry Eeles Dresser's _History of the Birds of Europe_ (1871–1896), and a single illustration in _The Journal of the Linnean Society_.
One of his last great achievements was his contribution of over one hundred plates for Frederick Du Cane Godman's _Monograph of the Petrels_ (1907–1910). He also spent some time collecting birds in Cape Verde and West Africa.
An illustration of the extinct great aukby Keulemans
Keulemans is credited with describing the Cape Verde swamp-warbler, _Calamodyta (Acrocephalus) brevipennis_. This is a drab bird about 14–16 cm., light brown above and on its flanks, and buff below. He did not publish an illustration of it, but his plate for _Acrocephalus brunnescens_ in George Henderson's _Lahore to Yarkand_ (pl. XVI) is similar. His notes and findings on the island of Principe, along with those of his colleague Dr. H. Dohrn, would eventually become the basis for a later description of a rare ibis, _Lampribis rothschildi_ Bannerman.
The only significant biography of Keulemans is by Jan Coldewey and Tony Keulemans, _Feathers to Brush_, a book that includes a bibliography of the artist's publications, a genealogical tree and appendices detailing his spiritualism, with a sample of his financial correspondence. Also of note is a contemporary obituary of Keulemans in the journal _British Birds_ (1912). Tony Keulemans later wrote _Beyond the grave_, which tells the story of a remarkable discovery of a painting John Gerrard had made of his own gravestone. And finally, Tony Keulemans wrote an errata list to _Feathers to Brush_, which includes additional literature references and new genealogical findings.
Keulemans's work is characterised by its consistency, showing little change over the course of his career, and focused to an extraordinary degree on the rendering of fine detail. These generalisations have also proven to be the basis for unjustified criticism of his work, since the nature of scientific illustration places a premium on consistency. Aside from this, a number of critics have rightly placed Keulemans above his contemporaries; his ability to create accurate and vivid representations of birds gave him prominence in his field.
Red-banded fruiteater(_Pipreola whitelyi_), 1886
Keulemans was prodigious in his output - he was commissioned to paint pictures of birds extensively throughout his career, and his prints were published continuously from 1867 to 1911. Keulemans' first prints appeared in two books by Francois Pollen, _Contributions a l'histoire naturelle des Lemuriens_ (1867) and _Een blik in Madagascar_(1867). Some appeared after his death until 1915 (Mathews, _Birds of Australia_); he had rendered the images on stone well before publication of these works. A calculation of his total output gives about 4,000-5,000 published illustrations. The vast majority of these were vignettes published within octavo-size books and publications, and a great number of his works also appeared in quarto (Dresser/_Europe_) and in folio (Seebohm/_Turdidae_ and DuCane Godman/_Petrels_). While the subject of his illustrations was almost entirely avian, he was also commissioned to create portraits of mammals, insects, and shells.
Most of the illustrations by Keulemans were produced through traditional lithography, allowing for a finished product that depicts a vivid, lifelike figure through depth and tone. Printing was carried out by the two firms of Mintern and Hanhart, and early in his career, some were printed by P. M. W. Trap. Often, the published lithographs were not coloured, and perhaps some (_Journal of the Linnean Society_, 1878) were not intended to be coloured. The technique of lithography made it necessary for the print to be coloured by hand. This was done by semi-skilled artisans working in an assembly line in a manner similar to stencilling. While Keulemans' talents as a draughtsman were hardly disputed by his contemporaries, often the finished, coloured plates were the subject of criticism (Sharpe/_Alcedinidae_). If the depicted colours did not match those of the birds, the value of the finished product was diminished.
Keulemans painted remarkable pictures of extinct birds, including Walter Rothschild's _Avifauna of Laysan, Extinct Birds_ (1907). Examples in the American Museum of Natural History in New York include the Choiseul crested pigeon, Kangaroo Island emu, huia, Lyall's wren, Hawaii oo, Hawaii mamo, Oahu oo, Guadalupe petrel, and the laughing owl.
The only work that was not only illustrated but also written by Keulemans, was _Onze vogels in huis en tuin_ (Our birds in home and garden). It was a three volume work in Dutch that appeared between 1869 and 1876.
* 1869: _Onze vogels in huis en tuin_ vol. 1. 242 text pages; 70 images; 3 pages contents.
* 1873: _Onze vogels in huis en tuin_ vol. 2. 232 text pages; 70 images; 3 pages contents.
* 1876: _Onze vogels in huis en tuin_ vol. 3. 194 text pages; 60 images; 3 pages contents.
In this work Keulemans does write about a number of native birds, but he also describes (and paints) a number of cagebirds and aviary birds.
Keulemans is famous for his illustrations, but in this book he shows that he is a very able observer of birds in the field as well. The chapter on the common cuckoo _Cuculus canorus_ in vol. 2, for instance, has 13 pages of text, with a number of field observations by Keulemans. In vol. 2 he describes the grey parrot (grijze roodstaartpapegaai) _Psittacus erithacus_ in vol. 2, giving an extensive account of field observations done on the island of Príncipe in de Gulf of Guinea. Keulemans stayed there around 1865 during a year. Many other chapters of _Onze vogels in huis en tuin_ also show that Keulemans was a careful observer of the species he painted and described.
An older Keulemans
According to the authors of Keulemans' biography _Feathers to Brush_, the artist's interest in spiritualism began with a premonition of his son Isidore's death. In an article in the Bristol Mercury and Daily Post of March 3, 1883, Keulemans tells how he and his family were living in Paris in December 1880 when there was an outbreak of smallpox. The parents sent three of their children to London to live with their grandparents; one of the children was his favorite son Isidore, aged four. In the morning of 24 January 1881, Keulemans woke up and heard Isidore's voice and saw his face. The apparition returned the next day, which made Keulemans very uneasy. A few days later he received a letter from London to tell him Isidore was ill, when in fact he had died exactly on the day of the first appearance of Isidore in John Gerrard's dream.
Subsequently, Keulemans experienced further incidents increasing his belief in the supernatural, in particular which he claimed could be awakened via the painting of a bird's eye. Keulemans began an association with the Society for Psychical Research; later he became disenchanted with the prevalence of fraud in spiritualist society, and used his scientific training to expose the trickery he saw performed by mediums.
M. & N. HANHART
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_Uromys rufescens_ by M. & N. Hanhart
M. & N. HANHART was a London lithographic publishing house founded by Michael Hanhart (1788–1865) and Nicholas Hanhart. The firm's heyday is considered to have been between 1839 and 1882. They published a wide range of material including book illustrations and lithographic sheet music covers. Their best work was in the field of large chromolithographs. Hanhart used a complex layering of tint stones, to produce work unique in colouration and tonal values.
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